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DHS OIG — Oversight of Unaccompanied Alien Children

July 31, 2014 Comments off

Oversight of Unaccompanied Alien Children (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General
From press release (PDF):

The Office of Inspector General (OIG), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), today issued the first of a series of reports on conditions at detention centers being used to temporarily house unaccompanied alien children.

The report is based on 87 unannounced site visits conducted by OIG agents from July 1-16 at 63 detention centers in Texas, Arizona and California, largely operated by Customs and Border Protection. The OIG’s oversight of the detention centers is ongoing and reports will be issued monthly.

The OIG’s findings are contained in a memorandum from Inspector General John Roth to Homeland Security Secretary Jeh C. Johnson.

OIG Agents checked the sites for sanitation, availability of medical care, food services and other factors. Sites and their staff were found to be largely in compliance with rules and regulations. Some problems were identified, including children requiring treatment for communicable diseases and DHS employees who have become ill from contact with their charges.

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By 2030 U.S. Standard of Living Could Decline to 2000 Level, According to Accenture

July 31, 2014 Comments off

By 2030 U.S. Standard of Living Could Decline to 2000 Level, According to Accenture
Source: Accenture

According to Accenture (NYSE:ACN), the U.S. standard of living is in danger of declining by 9 percent by 20301 – back to the level it was in 2000 – due to three major economic threats: an aging population, lower workforce participation and a flat or declining labor productivity growth rate.

The Accenture analysis is outlined in a new report, U.S. States: For Richer, For Poorer? Winning the battle for talent and securing our standard of living, which advocates that state governments develop and execute strategies to ensure a sufficient supply of talent to meet the country’s workforce demands. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, current workforce participation rates are at their lowest since 1977.

Medicaid and the Elderly

July 31, 2014 Comments off

Medicaid and the Elderly
Source: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College

The brief’s key findings are:

  • Medicaid covers not only the low-income elderly but also those with higher incomes who become impoverished by health costs, such as nursing home care.
  • The percentage of high-income single retirees receiving Medicaid rises with age – from near zero for those in their 70s to 20 percent for those in their late 90s.
  • Even higher-income retirees who never receive Medicaid benefit from the insurance value that it provides, which allows them to maintain smaller reserves.
  • The analysis suggests that single retirees of all incomes value current Medicaid benefits at more than their cost but an expansion at less than its cost.

Why Children are Fleeing Central America

July 31, 2014 Comments off

Why Children are Fleeing Central America (PDF)
Source: Bread for the World Institute

Since last October, more than 52,000 unaccompanied children have fled unspeakable conditions and crossed into the United States. Most have come from Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador. By year’s end, that number is expected to grow to between 70,000 and 90,000. The Department of Homeland Security is preparing for more than 100,000 children to arrive in 2015. The United States is witnessing a humanitarian crisis in this situation.

Many members of Congress are focusing on detention centers and how fast the United States can send these children back to their home countries. Few are asking this question: What are we sending these children back to? Without addressing the root causes of this crisis, such as poverty and violence, this situation will continue. More and more children will be driven to flee their home countries in search of greater educational and economic opportunities, safer and more stable communities, and a path out of hunger.

This crisis is not just about the surge of new arrivals in the United States. It is also about the conditions of poverty, hunger, and violence that force children to leave their homes on a very dangerous and uncertain journey:

• 75 percent of these children are coming from three countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras.
• More than half of the citizens of Honduras and Guatemala live on less than $4 a day.
• About half of all Guatemalans suffer from moderately or severely stunted growth.
• Honduras has the highest murder rate per capita in the world. It is almost five times that of Mexico and twice that of Detroit.
• Residents of all ages, including children, in these countries are getting caught in gang-related violence.

The Labor Force Participation Rate Since 2007: Causes and Policy Implications

July 31, 2014 Comments off

The Labor Force Participation Rate Since 2007: Causes and Policy Implications (PDF)
Source: Council of Economic Advisers (White House)

In 2008, the U.S. economy collided with two historic forces. The first force was the Great Recession, the most severe economic crisis in a generation. While the economy has recovered considerably over the last five years, there is little doubt that more work remains to address some of the challenges left in the wake of the Great Recession. The turmoil of 2008 inflicted tremendous pain on millions of families, overshadowing the fact that 2008 also marked a unique milestone in U.S. economic history. That year, the first baby boomers (those born in 1946) turned 62 and became eligible for Social Security early retirement benefits. This second force — the demographic inflection point stemming from the retirement of the baby boomers — was felt far less acutely than the Great Recession, but will continue to have a profound influence on the economy for years to come, well after the business cycle recovery from the Great Recession is considered complete.

In addition to these inflection points in 2008, a number of longer – term trends had been playing out in the U.S. labor force prior to 2008 — and have continued since then. These include the nearly continuous decline in labor force participation rates for prime – age males (i.e., age 25 – 54) since the mid – 1950s and the dramatic rise in labor force participation rates for prime – age females in the 1970s and 1980s followed by a st alling and slight trend decline after the late 1990s.

Many dimensions of the economy’s performance over the last several years can only be properly evaluated when the effects of the Great Recession, the retirement boom, and the longer – term labor force trends are taken into account . One of the clearest illustrations of this point is the labor force participation rate, which represents the fraction of the adult population either working or looking for work. Changes in labor force participation reflect not just current economic conditions like job availability and workers’ assessments of job – finding prospects, but also more structural factors like the age distribution of the population and other aspects of society that impact people’s decisions to participate in the labor force .

This report analyzes the evolution of the labor force participation rate since late 2007 and attempts to quantify the effects of these various forces. We examine the period since 2007 to focus on how each of the two largest forces, the Great Recession and the retirement of the baby boomers, has impacted labor force participation in recent years . We find that the combination of demographic changes and the drop in labor force participation that would have been expected based on historical business cycle patterns explain most but not all of the recent drop in labor force participation. This implies that other factors, likely including both a continuation of pre – existing trends in labor force participation by certain groups and the unique ef fects of the Great Recession have also been important. This report also discusses the labor force participation rates for different groups, discusses potential future scenarios for the participation rate, and lays out policies that would help to boost part icipation in the years to come.

Some College, No Degree: A National View of Students with Some College Enrollment, but No Completion

July 31, 2014 Comments off

Some College, No Degree: A National View of Students with Some College Enrollment, but No Completion</strong>
Source: National Student Clearinghouse

Over the past 20 years, more than 31 million students have enrolled in college and left without receiving a degree or certificate. Almost one-third of this population had only a minimal interaction with the higher education system, having enrolled for just a single term at a single institution. Signature Report 7 examines the “some college, no degree” phenomenon to better understand the value of some college in its own right and as well as the contribution the “some college, no degree” population can make to achieving college completion goals.

Use With Care: A Reporter’s Glossary of Loaded Language in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

July 31, 2014 Comments off

Use With Care: A Reporter’s Glossary of Loaded Language in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
Source: International Press Institute

IPI glossary designed for journalists covering the Israeli-Palestinian conflict available here to download.

The popularity of the handbook has been key for IPI´s decision to release the complete PDF of the handbook containing more than 75 alternative words and phrases.

A print version of the handbook, which is designed to help journalists covering the region, has been distributed to nearly 100 journalists and researchers.

Free registration required to download document.

UK — New measures to tighten up the immigration system

July 31, 2014 Comments off

New measures to tighten up the immigration system
Source: Department for Business, Innovation & Skills and Home Office

A new crackdown on immigration abuses was announced today by the Prime Minister and the Home Secretary as part of the government’s long-term economic plan to secure a better future for Britain.

From November, tougher rules will be imposed on universities and colleges who sponsor international students to study in the UK. Currently, educational institutions cannot enjoy highly trusted sponsor status if 20% or more of the individuals they have offered places to are refused visas. But that figure will be cut to 10% in November after a 3 month transitional period for colleges and universities to re-examine their admissions procedures before offering individuals places.

The Prime Minister also announced plans to halve the period over which European migrants can claim benefits. From November, European jobseekers will only be able to claim Jobseekers Allowance and other key welfare benefits for a maximum period of 3 months. This follows tough changes that were announced earlier this year to introduce a minimum 3 month delay to claiming benefits and to cut off benefits after 6 months unless the individual has very clear job prospects.

A Case against Child Labor Prohibitions

July 30, 2014 Comments off

A Case against Child Labor Prohibitions
Source: Cato Institute

In my recent book, Out of Poverty: Sweatshops in the Global Economy, I argue that much of what the anti-sweatshop movement agitates for would harm workers and that the process of economic development, in which sweatshops play an important role, is the best way to raise wages and improve working conditions. Child labor, although the most emotionally charged aspect of sweatshops, is not an exception to this analysis.

We should desire to see an end to child labor, but it has to come through a process that generates better opportunities for the children—not from legislative mandates that prevent children and their families from taking the best option available to them. Children work because their families are desperately poor, and the meager addition to the family income they can contribute is often necessary for survival. Banning child labor through trade regulations or governmental prohibitions often simply forces the children into less-desirable alternatives. When U.S. activists started pressuring Bangladesh into eliminating child labor, the results were disastrous.

Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents, 2007–2013, and Postlicensure Vaccine Safety Monitoring, 2006–2014 — United States

July 30, 2014 Comments off

Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents, 2007–2013, and Postlicensure Vaccine Safety Monitoring, 2006–2014 — United States
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

Since mid-2006, a licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been available and recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for routine vaccination of adolescent girls at ages 11 or 12 years (1). Two vaccines that protect against HPV infection are currently available in the United States. Both the quadrivalent (HPV4) and bivalent (HPV2) vaccines protect against HPV types 16 and 18, which cause 70% of cervical cancers; HPV4 also protects against HPV types 6 and 11, which cause 90% of genital warts (1,2). In 2011, the ACIP also recommended HPV4 for the routine vaccination of adolescent boys at ages 11 or 12 years (3). HPV vaccines can be safely co-administered with other routinely recommended vaccines, and ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit (4). To assess progress with HPV vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13–17 years,* characterize adherence with recommendations for HPV vaccination by the 13th birthday, and describe HPV vaccine adverse reports received postlicensure, CDC analyzed data from the 2007–2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) and national postlicensure vaccine safety data among females and males. Vaccination coverage with ≥1 dose of any HPV vaccine increased significantly from 53.8% (2012) to 57.3% (2013) among adolescent girls and from 20.8% (2012) to 34.6% (2013) among adolescent boys. Receipt of ≥1 dose of HPV among girls by age 13 years increased with each birth cohort; however, missed vaccination opportunities were common. Had HPV vaccine been administered to adolescent girls born in 2000 during health care visits when they received another vaccine, vaccination coverage for ≥1 dose by age 13 years for this cohort could have reached 91.3%. Postlicensure monitoring data continue to indicate that HPV4 is safe. Improving practice patterns so that clinicians use every opportunity to recommend HPV vaccines and address questions from parents can help realize reductions in vaccine-preventable infections and cancers caused by HPV.

National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13–17 Years — United States, 2013

July 30, 2014 Comments off

National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13–17 Years — United States, 2013
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents routinely receive 1 dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 2 doses of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (1,2).* ACIP also recommends administration of “catch-up”† vaccinations, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), hepatitis B, and varicella, and, for all persons aged ≥6 months, an annual influenza vaccination (1). ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit (3). To assess vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13–17 years, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen).§ This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which show that from 2012 to 2013, coverage increased for each of the vaccines routinely recommended for adolescents: from 84.6% to 86.0% for ≥1 Tdap dose; from 74.0% to 77.8% for ≥1 MenACWY dose; from 53.8% to 57.3% for ≥1 HPV dose among females, and from 20.8% to 34.6% for ≥1 HPV dose among males. Coverage varied by state and local jurisdictions and by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) region. Healthy People 2020 vaccination targets for adolescents aged 13–15 years (4) were reached in 42 states for ≥1 Tdap dose, 18 for ≥1 MenACWY dose, and 11 for ≥2 varicella doses. No state met the target for ≥3 HPV doses.¶ Use of patient reminder and recall systems, immunization information systems, coverage assessment and feedback to clinicians, clinician reminders, standing orders, and other interventions can help make use of every health care visit to ensure that adolescents are fully protected from vaccine-preventable infections and cancers (5), especially when such interventions are coupled with clinicians’ vaccination recommendations.

Majority of Parents Say They Will Increase Back-to-School Spending This Year and Most Plan to Shop in a Physical Store, Accenture Survey Finds

July 30, 2014 Comments off

Majority of Parents Say They Will Increase Back-to-School Spending This Year and Most Plan to Shop in a Physical Store, Accenture Survey Finds
Source: Accenture

A majority of parents plan to spend more on their children’s back-to-school shopping this year, driven by rising costs or necessity rather than greater spending power, according to a survey released today by Accenture (NYSE:ACN). The Accenture Back-to-School Shopping Survey, which polled U.S. parents of children entering kindergarten through college, shows that nearly all (89 percent) plan to do most of their back-to-school shopping in a physical store, though many will still use online to browse and search – “webrooming.”

According to the survey, two-thirds of parents (67 percent) plan to spend between $100 and $500 and 41 percent plan to spend $500 or more for back-to-school shopping this year. Compared to last year, just over half (52 percent) of the parents said they will spend more on back-to-school shopping than last year, 37 percent plan to spend the same and only 11 percent expect to spend less. One-third (33 percent) of parents spending more plan to increase their spending by $250 or more. Among the reasons given for the spending increase, 71 percent cited higher prices and 56 percent cited increased school requirements. Nearly one in five parents (19 percent) said they will spend more in order to help their children “keep up with their friends.”

The survey results demonstrate the growing importance of the seamless shopping experience. For example, nearly eight out of 10 (79 percent) plan to participate in “webrooming” – browsing online and then going to a store to make their purchase. The top reasons respondents cited for webrooming were: to check if an item is in stock before going to a store to make a purchase (47 percent); to touch and feel the product before buying (43 percent); to avoid shipping costs (43 percent); and to ask the store to match a better price found online (33 percent).

Survey | Nearly 7-in-10 Americans See Unaccompanied Children at Border as Refugees, Not Illegal Immigrants

July 30, 2014 Comments off

Survey | Nearly 7-in-10 Americans See Unaccompanied Children at Border as Refugees, Not Illegal Immigrants
Source: Public Religion Research Institute

Roughly half (49%) of Americans report hearing a lot about the growing numbers of children arriving in the United States from Central America, while 31% report only hearing a little, and 20% report hearing nothing at all.

More than one-third (36%) of Americans view the number of children now coming from Central America as a crisis, while 43% see the situation as a serious problem but not a crisis. About 1-in-5 (19%) say the situation is a minor problem.

A majority (69%) of Americans say that children arriving from Central America should be treated as refugees and allowed to stay in the U.S. if authorities determine it is not safe for them to return to their home countries. In contrast, 27% say that children arriving from Central America should be treated as illegal immigrants and deported back to their home countries.

The Reversal of the Gender Gap in Education and Trends in Marital Dissolution

July 30, 2014 Comments off

The Reversal of the Gender Gap in Education and Trends in Marital Dissolution (PDF)
Source: American Sociological Review

The reversal of the gender gap in education has potentially far-reaching consequences for marriage markets, family formation, and relationship outcomes. One possible consequence is the growing number of marriages in which wives have more education than their husbands. Past research shows that this type of union is at higher risk of dissolution. Using data on marriages formed between 1950 and 2004 in the United States, we evaluate whether this association has persisted as the prevalence of this relationship type has increased. Our results show a large shift in the association between spouses’ relative education and marital dissolution. Specifically, marriages in which wives have the educational advantage were once more likely to dissolve, but this association has disappeared in more recent marriage cohorts. Another key finding is that the relative stability of marriages between educational equals has increased. These results are consistent with a shift away from rigid gender specialization toward more flexible, egalitarian partnerships, and they provide an important counterpoint to claims that progress toward gender equality in heterosexual relationships has stalled.

Wealth Levels, Wealth Inequality, and the Great Recession

July 30, 2014 Comments off

Wealth Levels, Wealth Inequality, and the Great Recession
Source: Russell Sage Foundation

The Great Recession caused an unprecedented decline in wealth holdings among American households. Between 2007 and 2009, average housing prices in the largest metropolitan areas fell by nearly one-third, as measured by the Case-Shiller home price index. Stock prices also collapsed, with the Dow Jones Index losing nearly half of its value between mid-2007 and early 2009. These developments were exacerbated by a doubling in the unemployment rate from 5 to 10 perent between December 2007 and October 2009 and a large reduction in earnings due to increased unemployment, wage and hour cuts, and furloughs.

The housing, stock, and job markets have all improved since 2009, but at very different rates. The stock market rebounded relatively quickly and returned to the prerecession levsls by the middle of 2013. The Juy 2013 unemployment rate of 7.4 percent was below the recession peak of 10.0 percent, but was still substantially higher than the 4.7 perent rate of mid-2007. However, the most important source of wealth for most Americans is their home, and by mid-2013 home prices were still 20 percent below their mid-2007 values.

This reserch brief assesses two questions about the extent to whih the Great Recession altered the level and distribution of wealth through 2013 — the most recent year of data available on wealth held by American families.

1. By how much did wealth levels decline during the Great Recession, and by how much did they recover through 2013?

2. Did walth inequality increase, decrease, or remain steady during the Great Recession?

Survey of Academic Field Experiences (SAFE): Trainees Report Harassment and Assault

July 30, 2014 Comments off

Survey of Academic Field Experiences (SAFE): Trainees Report Harassment and Assault
Source: PLoS ONE

Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites.

Body Mass Index, Sex, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Hispanic/Latino Adults: Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

July 30, 2014 Comments off

Body Mass Index, Sex, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Hispanic/Latino Adults: Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos
Source: Journal of the American Heart Association

Background
All major Hispanic/Latino groups in the United States have a high prevalence of obesity, which is often severe. Little is known about cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among those at very high levels of body mass index (BMI).

Methods and Results
Among US Hispanic men (N=6547) and women (N=9797), we described gradients across the range of BMI and age in CVD risk factors including hypertension, serum lipids, diabetes, and C‐reactive protein. Sex differences in CVD risk factor prevalences were determined at each level of BMI, after adjustment for age and other demographic and socioeconomic variables. Among those with class II or III obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2, 18% women and 12% men), prevalences of hypertension, diabetes, low high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and high C‐reactive protein level approached or exceeded 40% during the fourth decade of life. While women had a higher prevalence of class III obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m2) than did men (7% and 4%, respectively), within this highest BMI category there was a >50% greater relative prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in men versus women, while sex differences in prevalence of these CVD risk factors were ≈20% or less at other BMI levels.

Conclusions
Elevated BMI is common in Hispanic/Latino adults and is associated with a considerable excess of CVD risk factors. At the highest BMI levels, CVD risk factors often emerge in the earliest decades of adulthood and they affect men more often than women.

How Humans Respond to Robots: Building Public Policy Through Good Design

July 30, 2014 Comments off

How Humans Respond to Robots: Building Public Policy Through Good Design
Source: Brookings Institution

Historically, robotics in industry meant automation, a field that asks how machines perform more effectively than humans. These days, new innovation highlights a very different design space: what people and robots can do better together. Instead of idolizing machines or disparaging their shortcomings, these human-machine partnerships acknowledge and build upon human capability. From autonomous cars reducing traffic accidents, to grandparents visiting their grandchildren by means of telepresence robots, these technologies will soon be part of our everyday lives and environments. What they have in common is the intent to support or empower the human partners with robotic capability and ultimately complement human objectives.

Human cultural response to robots has policy implications. Policy affects what we will and will not let robots do. It affects where we insist on human primacy and what sort of decisions we will delegate to machines. One current example of this is the ongoing campaign by Human Rights Watch for an international treaty to ban military robots with autonomous lethal firing power—to ensure that a human being remain “in the loop” in any lethal decision. No such robots currently exist, nor does any military have plans to deploy them, nor is it clear when robotic performance is inferior, or how it is different from human performance in lethal force situations. Yet the cultural aversion to robots with the power to pull the trigger on their own is such that the campaign has gained significant traction.

Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenses by Age and Insurance Coverage, 2011

July 29, 2014 Comments off

Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenses by Age and Insurance Coverage, 2011
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Highlights

  • In 2011, an average of $703 was paid out of pocket for health care among people with some health care expenses. However, the median out-of-pocket amount was notably lower ($237).
  • Nearly one-fifth of people with some health care expenses had out-of-pocket expenses greater than $1,000 while 8.2 percent had out-of-pocket expenses greater than $2,000.
  • Average out-of-pocket expenses increased with age, ranging from $283 for children under 18 to $1,215 for people age 65 and older.
  • On average, the uninsured paid nearly two-thirds of their health care expenses out of pocket while people under age 65 covered by public insurance and people age 65 and older covered by Medicare and other public insurance paid a substantially lower percentage (only 9–11 percent).

HHS — Unaccompanied Children Released to Sponsors By State

July 29, 2014 Comments off

Unaccompanied Children Released to Sponsors By State
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Refugee Resettlement

When a child who is not accompanied by a parent or guardian is apprehended by immigration authorities, the child is transferred to the care and custody of the Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR). ORR cares for the children in shelters around the country until they can be released to a sponsor, typically a parent or relative, who can care for the child while their immigration case is processed.

Ensuring that a potential sponsor can safely and appropriately care for the child is a top priority. A background check is conducted on all potential sponsors, and steps are taken to verify a potential sponsor’s identity and relationship to the child. In some cases where concerns are raised, a home study is done.

Before children are released to a sponsor, they receive vaccinations and medical screenings. We do not release any children who have a contagious condition.

The sponsor must agree to cooperate with all immigration proceedings.

If ORR cannot identify a viable sponsor, the child will typically remain in ORR care unless the following happens:

  • The child goes before the immigration judge and requests a voluntary departure
  • A judge orders the child to be deported and DHS repatriates
  • The child turns 18, transferring custody back to DHS
  • Legal relief, in some form is granted by an immigration judge
  • Ensuring the privacy and safety of children is of paramount importance. We cannot release information about individual children that could compromise the child’s location or identity.

The data in the table below shows state-by-state placement of unaccompanied children with sponsors. ACF will update this data during the first week of each month.

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