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A Review of Research on Problematic Internet Use and Well-Being: With Recommendations for the U.S. Air Force

March 27, 2015 Comments off

A Review of Research on Problematic Internet Use and Well-Being: With Recommendations for the U.S. Air Force
Source: RAND Corporation

This report reviews the scientific literature on the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of problematic Internet use (PIU) with the goal of informing Air Force policies aimed at mitigating PIU’s negative impact on operations and the mental health of Airmen. The report is motivated by a recent RAND study estimating that 6 percent of Airmen have PIU. Individuals with PIU, similar to people with substance addictions, suffer from excessive and compulsive online activities, symptoms of tolerance and withdrawal, and functional impairment. PIU is also strongly associated with other mental health problems including major depression. However, at present there is no single accepted definition of PIU, and no up-to-date estimates of the prevalence of PIU in the general U.S. population are available. A range of prevention and treatment approaches have been developed, but none has been rigorously tested in clinical trials. Prevention programs rely on workplace Internet policies and strategies to help individuals self-regulate their Internet use. Treatment approaches that have proven feasible and acceptable to patients with PIU include adaptations of cognitive-behavioral therapy, an evidence-based treatment for depression and anxiety, to the specific symptoms of PIU. Based on our findings, we recommend: (1) increasing awareness of PIU among organizational leadership and mental health professionals, (2) incorporating content related to PIU into existing trainings related to mental health, (3) providing support for self-regulation of Internet use on the job by incorporating PIU management principles into Internet use policies, and (4) continuing monitoring of the emerging scientific literature on PIU.

EU Council Library Think Tank Review — Issue 22

March 26, 2015 Comments off

EU Council Library Think Tank Review — Issue 22
Source: General Secretariat of the Council of the EU (Central Library)

Welcome to issue 22 of the Think Tank Review compiled by the EU Council Library. It gives a short abstract of papers published in February 2015, with a link to the full text.

This month’s Review has a focus on external action and includes the CEPS/ Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung report on More Union in European defence, presented in Brussels on 9 March. Other relevant resources from the library were listed in our blog post on the event.

On economics, we harvested the habitual range of papers on the banking union, capital markets, pros and cons of the ECB’s quantitative easing, debt targets and the balanced budget rule, and more. Thomas Piketty’s book continues to trigger debate. See the collection of (mostly critical) essays on the book by the UK think tank Policy Network. On inequality, the notion at the heart of Piketty’s book, we also feature an article by Caritas Europa and one by Friends of Europe.

CRS — Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress (March 4, 2015)

March 25, 2015 Comments off

Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

Multiyear procurement (MYP) and block buy contracting (BBC) are special contracting mechanisms that Congress permits the Department of Defense (DOD) to use for a limited number of defense acquisition programs. Compared to the standard or default approach of annual contracting, MYP and BBC have the potential for reducing weapon procurement costs by several percent.

Recipients of the Congressional Medal of Honor, CRS Fact Sheet (March 19, 2015)

March 25, 2015 Comments off

Recipients of the Congressional Medal of Honor, CRS Fact Sheet (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

This fact sheet lists names of recipients of the Congressional Medal of Honor, the highest award for valor, awarded during the 113th Congress.

Training Cyber Warriors: What Can Be Learned from Defense Language Training?

March 24, 2015 Comments off

Training Cyber Warriors: What Can Be Learned from Defense Language Training?
Source: RAND Corporation

As the importance of cyber operations in national security grows, the U.S. military’s ability to ensure a robust cyber workforce becomes increasingly important in protecting the nation. A particular concern has been the growing need for cyber warriors: highly trained and specialized individuals who engage in offensive and defensive operations. The authors seek to help those planning future training for cyber warriors by highlighting what can be learned from another specialty: defense language. While there is no perfect analogy between cyber personnel and another segment of the national security workforce, a number of similarities exist between the need for language skills and cyber warrior expertise, including the need for a highly specialized skill that requires extensive training, the critical role of the skill in mission effectiveness, a need to quickly build capacity, and a potentially limited pipeline of qualified candidates. In this exploratory study, the authors examine what the military services and national security agencies have done to train linguists — personnel with skills in critical languages other than English — and the kinds of language training provided to build and maintain this segment of the workforce. They draw from published documents, research literature, and interviews of experts in both language and cyber. Among key findings, the authors find that shared definitions and metrics are an important first step, training must be closely aligned with mission needs, efforts should focus on building a strong pipeline of candidates, and training must be aligned with overall workforce management efforts.

CRS — Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2015 (March 10, 2015)

March 24, 2015 Comments off

Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2015 (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

The passage of the Department of Defense (DOD) authorization and appropriations bills through Congress often does not follow the course laid out in textbooks on legislative procedure. Tracking DOD authorization or appropriation bills can be confusing and time-consuming. This has been particularly true in recent years, when continuing resolutions (CRs) containing the DOD and other appropriation bills have been passed in lieu of the 12 regular appropriations bills for the entire U.S. government.

This report is a research aid which lists the DOD authorization bills (Table 1) and appropriations bills (Table 2) for FY1970-FY2015. This report includes all the pertinent information on the passage of these bills through the legislative process: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. Key definitions are also included. This report will be updated as legislative activity warrants.

Getting to the Left of SHARP: Lessons Learned from West Point’s Efforts to Combat Sexual Harassment and Assault

March 23, 2015 Comments off

Getting to the Left of SHARP: Lessons Learned from West Point’s Efforts to Combat Sexual Harassment and Assault
Source: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College

On July 26, 1948, President Harry Truman signed Executive Order 9981, ending the practice of segregating the military services by race. That same year, the Army allowed women to join the services on an equal basis with men. Both of these steps preceded the larger societal changes that allowed fully equal treatment of all types of American citizens in military service. Just over 2 years ago, Congress repealed the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell policy, allowing for gays and lesbians to openly take their place in the military. Our procedures and policies for successful gender integration have grown and evolved. The authors share five principles for leaders and commanders on the prevention of sexual harassment and assault, as well as associated “Tips” for implementation: (1) Leaders identify and break chains of circumstance; (2) Education is preferable to litigation; (3) What’s electronic is public; (4) Don’t ignore pornography; and, (5) Unit climate is the commander’s responsibility. These principles and their associated tips are not panaceas, and these recommendations are submitted for discussion and feedback.

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