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Archive for the ‘Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation Law’ Category

LGB Families and Relationships: Analyses of the 2013 National Health Interview Survey

October 27, 2014 Comments off

LGB Families and Relationships: Analyses of the 2013 National Health Interview Survey
Source: Williams Institute

The addition of a sexual orientation identity measure to the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) offers a new data source to consider characteristics of families and explore differences among those led by same-sex and different-sex married and unmarried couples and LGB individuals who are not married or cohabiting. These analyses consider differences and similarities across these groups with regard to demographic characteristics including gender, age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, geographic location, and child-rearing. In 2013, there were an estimated 690,000 same-sex couples in the US, of whom approximately 124,000 were married. In the last three years, the number of married same-sex couples in the US has increased by an estimated 50%. Same-sex couples were raising an estimated 200,000 children under age 18, of whom 30,000 are being raised by married same-sex parents. LGBT individuals who are not part of a couple are raising between 1.2 and 2 million children (depending on which estimate is used regarding the proportion of adults who are LGB or LGBT).

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LGBT Demographics: Comparisons among population-based surveys

October 1, 2014 Comments off

LGBT Demographics: Comparisons among population-based surveys
Source: Williams Institute

This report uses four large, national, population-based surveys to consider the ways in which LGBT populations are demographically similar to or distinct from their non-LGBT counterparts in the United States. Comparisons of demographic characteristics are made among the surveys and, when possible, among sexual orientation identities to consider differences between those who identify as lesbian or gay and those who identify as bisexual (none of the surveys allow for separate identification of transgender individuals). Estimates of the percent of adults who identified as LGB or LGBT varied across surveys from between 2.2% and 4.0%, implying that between 5.2 million and 9.5 million individuals aged 18 and older are LGBT. Despite this variation in prevalence estimates, the analyzed surveys show many demographic similarities among respondents who choose to identify as LGB or LGBT. LGBT identity was more common among younger populations. LGBT populations generally shared the racial and ethnic characteristics of non-LGBT individuals. Adults were more likely to identify as LGBT in the Northeast and West than in the South and Midwest.

Transgender Military Service in the United States

June 23, 2014 Comments off

Transgender Military Service in the United States
Source: Williams Institute

An estimated 150,000 transgender individuals have served in the U.S. armed forces, or are currently on active duty. In addition, an estimated 134,000 transgender individuals are veterans or are retired from Guard or Reserve service, 8,800 transgender adults are currently on active duty in the U.S. armed forces, and an estimated 6,700 transgender individuals are serving in the Guard or Reserve forces. Transgender individuals assigned female at birth are nearly three times more likely than all adult women, and those assigned male at birth are 1.6 times more likely than all adult men, to serve.

Preschool selection considerations and experiences of school mistreatment among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents

March 23, 2014 Comments off

Preschool selection considerations and experiences of school mistreatment among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents
Source: The Williams Institute (UCLA)

Lesbian, Gay, or Bisexual parents of preschoolers may be particularly sensitive to family, racial and sexual diversity issues as they evaluate and select preschools for their children. Additionally, heterosexual adoptive parent families may be especially sensitive to adoption-related stigma and exclusion. Early childhood educators should recognize the growing diversity of contemporary families and consider adoption, family structure, and race as important components of curriculum development. Preschool-age children are beginning to develop an understanding of basic concepts such as race, ethnicity, gender, and families, yet their educators are often uncertain about how to enact more inclusive and affirming approaches to LGB families. Educators and administrators may require additional professional training to increase their knowledge and awareness of LGB and adoptive-parent families for the benefit of their overall approach to teaching.

Race/Ethnicity, Gender and Socioeconomic Wellbeing of Individuals in Same-sex Couples

March 17, 2014 Comments off

Race/Ethnicity, Gender and Socioeconomic Wellbeing of Individuals in Same-sex Couples
Source: The Williams Institute (UCLA)

Similar patterns of racial disparities in income and employment exist among individuals in same-sex and different-sex couples. The report also found that racial/ethnic minority individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of individuals of their own race or ethnicity.

Among same-sex couples, African-American, Latino, American-Indian and Alaskan Native respondents have lower incomes, lower college completion rates and higher unemployment rates than White, Asian and Pacific Islander respondents. Regardless of race or ethnicity, individuals in same-sex couples have higher unemployment rates and, yet, higher rates of college completion compared to their counterparts in different-sex couples. Among same-sex couples, American-Indian, Alaskan Native and Latino/a individuals in same-sex couples are the least likely (70%, 71%) to be covered by health insurance. Health insurance rates are generally lower for individuals in same-sex couples compared to their counterparts in different-sex couples.

Still Serving in Silence: Transgender Service Members and Veterans in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey

August 14, 2013 Comments off

Still Serving in Silence: Transgender Service Members and Veterans in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey
Source: Williams Institute

While transgender people serve in the military at a rate double the general population, they nonetheless face discrimination during and after service. Despite the repeal of ‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,’ this study highlights the ongoing discrimination faced by transgender people who have served in the military. For example, nine percent of those who served reported that they were discharged on account of being transgender or gender non-conforming. While congressional legislation does not prohibit transgender people from military service, the military’s medical code lays out regulations that can prevent transgender people from joining the military or serving openly. In this study, some transgender service members reported not serving openly for fear of discharge or verbal, physical, and sexual abuse.

The study utilized data collected through the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), which was conducted by the National Center for Transgender Equality and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. 6,456 transgender and gender non-conforming people in the United States reported on their experiences of discrimination and abuse at work, at home, in school, and in the public sphere, amassing the largest transgender survey sample to date. The survey also asked respondents about their military service, whether they had been discharged due to anti-transgender bias, and their ability to update military discharge records.

Gendered Restrooms and Minority Stress: The Public Regulation of Gender and its Impact on Transgender People’s Lives

July 31, 2013 Comments off

Gendered Restrooms and Minority Stress: The Public Regulation of Gender and its Impact on Transgender People’s Lives
Source: Williams Institute (UCLA)

Transgender and gender non-conforming people report being denied access to gendered restrooms, and experiencing verbal harassment and physical assault in these spaces at alarming rates. The Washington, DC- based survey, conducted with the DC Trans Coalition, found that 70 percent of survey respondents report experiencing verbal harassment, assault, and being denied access to public restrooms. The study identifies the impact that transgender people’s negative experiences in gendered restrooms can have on their education, employment, health, and participation in public life.

Findings include:

• 27 percent of those who worked in Washington, DC, experienced problems using restrooms at work that, in some cases, caused them to change jobs or leave their employer entirely.

• 54 percent of all respondents reported having some sort of physical problem from trying to avoid using public restrooms, such as dehydration, kidney infections, and urinary tract infections.

• 58 percent reported that they have avoided going out in public due to a lack of safe public restroom facilities.

• 10 percent of survey respondents who attended school in Washington, DC, reported a negative impact on their education, including having excessive absences and dropping out of school due to issues related to restroom access.

• People of color and people who have not medically transitioned fared worse in some measured survey outcomes.

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