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Consumer spending and U.S. employment from the 2007–2009 recession through 2022

November 7, 2014 Comments off

Consumer spending and U.S. employment from the 2007–2009 recession through 2022
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

In the latest recession, employment supported by U.S. consumer spending declined by an estimated 3.2 million jobs between 2007 and 2010, over a third of total job declines during that time frame. Compared with the overall economy, consumer-related employment demonstrated relative resilience, recovering in 2012. Through 2022, consumer spending is projected to support stable job growth with increasing expenditures on labor-intensive services like health care. However, consumer spending and its related employment are projected to grow slower than in the past and at rates similar to the overall economy.

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The Employment Situation — October 2014

November 7, 2014 Comments off

The Employment Situation — October 2014
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 214,000 in October, and the unemployment rate edged down to 5.8 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Employment increased in food services and drinking places, retail trade, and health care.

Female self-employment in the United States: an update to 2012

October 21, 2014 Comments off

Female self-employment in the United States: an update to 2012
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

This article uses data from the Current Population Survey to examine changes in the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of self-employed women over the 1993–2012 period. The analysis suggests that these female workers, who represented about one-third of all self-employed individuals in 2012, have weathered recessions relatively well and made considerable strides in educational attainment and earnings. In addition, they have become more diverse in terms of race, family characteristics, and health status.

Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

October 13, 2014 Comments off

Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
Source: U.S. Department of Labor

The Department of Labor’s annual Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor focuses on the efforts of certain U.S. trade beneficiary countries and territories to eliminate the worst forms of child labor through legislation, enforcement mechanisms, policies and social programs.

Husbands’ job loss and wives’ labor force participation during economic downturns: are all recessions the same?

October 8, 2014 Comments off

Husbands’ job loss and wives’ labor force participation during economic downturns: are all recessions the same?
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Earlier research showed an added-worker effect for wives when their husbands stopped working during the Great Recession (December 2007–June 2009) but not when husbands stopped working in recent years of prosperity (2004–2005). By including one recession per decade for the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, this article builds upon that research by using Current Population Survey data to compare wives’ labor force responses to their husbands stopping work across three recessions to determine whether wives’ employment responses during the Great Recession differed from those during earlier recessions. Additionally, we hypothesize motivations for wives entering the labor force and consider the occupations they enter. Across all three recessions included in this study, wives entered the labor force more often when their husband stopped working. More nuanced analyses show that during both the Great Recession and the 1990–1991 recession, wives were more likely to seek work and find a job if their husband became not employed, while in the 1981–1982 recession wives were more likely to seek work but less likely to find a job. We also find that wives who started a job during the Great Recession or the 1990–1991 recession were more likely to enter service occupations than professional or managerial occupations, but this was not the case during the 1981–1982 recession. Furthermore, during the three recessions, college-educated wives who started a job were more likely than wives with less education to enter professional and managerial occupations relative to service occupations or other occupations. However, these newly employed college-educated wives were somewhat more likely to enter service or other occupations than their college-educated counterparts who were employed continuously.

How has labor force participation among young moms and dads changed? A comparison of two cohorts

October 7, 2014 Comments off

How has labor force participation among young moms and dads changed? A comparison of two cohorts
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Over the past four decades, the labor force has changed dramatically. Women’s labor market participation rates have risen, and women are increasingly working throughout their adult lives. One consequence of these changes is that men’s and women’s roles have been converging, with men taking a more active role at home, doing a greater share of housework and child care, and women spending more time in paid work.

It is still common, however, for women to take time out of the labor force when they have children. With the trend toward shared responsibilities in the home between the genders, are young men increasingly spending more time out of the labor force after the birth of a child?

This Beyond the Numbers article examines work patterns in the lives of young adults in the year after they have their first child. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997 and 1979 (NLSY97 and NLSY79 respectively), we compare men and women born between 1980 and 1984 with men and women born between 1957 and 1964 to see how labor force participation among new moms and dads has changed. This analysis looks at individuals who had a first child between the ages of 18 and 24 and compares them to individuals of the same age without children. The NLSY975 and NLSY796 collect information about the timing of births and individuals’ weekly work history, allowing for a comparison of labor force participation after the birth of a child.We analyze how different variables, such as age, educational status, employment status, race and ethnicity, and presence of fathers and mothers in the household, influence the labor market experience of young parents.

Our data indicate that although women typically continue to take more time out of the labor force after the birth of a child than do men, differences have been narrowing. However, this narrowing is largely the result of increased labor force participation of mothers in the year after giving birth, rather than decreased labor force participation among new fathers.

Monthly Labor Review: Teacher staffing and pay differences: public and private schools

October 3, 2014 Comments off

Teacher staffing and pay differences: public and private schools
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

A study using Current Population Survey data shows that, from 1996 to 2012, elementary, middle, and high school teachers earned less than other college graduates, but the gap was smaller for public school teachers and smaller still if they had union representation; moreover, the mitigating effects are stronger for female than male teachers, so the within-gender pay gaps are much larger for male teachers.

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