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United States Life Tables, 2010 (November 6, 2014)

November 10, 2014 Comments off

United States Life Tables, 2010 (PDF)
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Objectives—
This report presents complete period life tables for the United States by race, Hispanic origin, and sex, based on age-specific death rates in 2010.

Methods—
Data used to prepare the 2010 life tables are 2010 final mortality statistics; April 1, 2010 population estimates based on the 2010 decennial census; and 2010 Medicare data for persons aged 66-99. The methodology used to estimate the 2010 life tables was first implemented with data year 2008. The methodology used to estimate the life tables for the Hispanic population remains unchanged from that developed for the publication of life tables by Hispanic origin for data year 2006.

Results—
In 2010, the overall expectation of life at birth was 78.7 years. Between 2009 and 2010, life expectancy at birth increased for all groups considered. Life expectancy increased for both males (from 76.0 to 76.2) and females (80.9 to 81.0) and for the white population (78.8 to 78.9), the black population (74.7 to 75.1), the Hispanic population (81.1 to 81.4), the non-Hispanic white population (78.7 to 78.8), and the non-Hispanic black population (74.4 to 74.7).

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Canada’s pay gap

October 30, 2014 Comments off

Canada’s pay gap
Source: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives

A new CCPA study, Narrowing the Gap: The difference pubic sector wages make, compares the wages of full-time public and private sector workers and finds significant gaps in the wages of women, aboriginal workers, and visible minority workers. Those gaps are bigger in the private sector in every instance:

  • University educated aboriginal workers make 44% less than their non-aboriginal peers in the private sector. In the public sector, their wage gap shrinks to 14%.
  • University educated women working in the private sector earn 27% less than men. Their wage gap in the public sector is 18%.
  • University educated visible minority workers take home 20% less than their non-visible minority counterparts. In the public sector, their wage gap is 12%.

Salaries are higher in the public sector precisely for those groups of people who experience the greatest discrimination in the private sector—because the public sector goes further in correcting those discriminatory practices. The result is not higher wages but rather a more equitable system of pay.

Boosting the Life Chances of Young Men of Color

October 30, 2014 Comments off

Boosting the Life Chances of Young Men of Color
Source: MDRC

Despite progress on many fronts, young men of color still face many obstacles to success in American society and suffer disproportionately from economic and social disadvantage. In recent years, foundations and state and local governments have launched major initiatives to address this pressing issue. For example, in 2011, the City of New York created the Young Men’s Initiative, a $42-million annual program, supported by Bloomberg Philanthropies and the Open Society Foundation, to invest in the success of the city’s young men of color. In February of this year, the Obama Administration announced “My Brother’s Keeper,” a multimillion-dollar push by the government, foundations, and businesses to “build ladders of opportunity and unlock the full potential of boys and young men of color.”

In light of the momentum building to improve the fortunes of young men of color, this review takes a look at what is known about this population and highlights programs that are shown by rigorous research to be making a difference. It first examines the special challenges and struggles of these young men in the labor market, including problems related to their disproportionate involvement in the criminal justice system and their experiences in the educational system. A growing number of young men of color have become disconnected from the positive systems, institutions, and pathways designed to help people achieve success — high school diplomas, enrollment in and completion of postsecondary education or training, and ultimately career ladders leading to well-paying jobs.

Given these facts, the natural next question is: What can be done? Does this group of young men constitute, as some have labeled them, a “lost generation”? Or are there interventions that can provide real hope and real results? Can the nation’s institutions do a better job of increasing educational and labor market opportunity? Is there, in fact, a way to move away from deficit-focused characterizations of young men of color to ones that recognize and build on their resilience and strengths?

The second section of the paper reviews the results from high-quality, randomized controlled trials involving young men of color, some conducted by MDRC and some by other groups. It highlights a number of promising interventions, casting doubt on the conventional wisdom that nothing can be done.

The Equity Solution: Racial Inclusion Is Key to Growing a Strong New Economy

October 27, 2014 Comments off

The Equity Solution: Racial Inclusion Is Key to Growing a Strong New Economy (PDF)
Source: PolicyLink

America is quickly becoming a majority people of color nation. At the same time, inequality is skyrocketing and racial inequities—from the homogeneity of the tech sector to the segregated suburbs of St. Louis—are wide, persistent, and glaring. Equity—just and fair inclusion of all—has always been a moral imperative in this country, but a new consensus is emerging that equity is also an economic imperative. Scores of economists and institutions like Standard & Poor’s and Morgan Stanley now believe that rising inequality and low wages for workers on the bottom rungs of the economic ladder are stifling growth and competitiveness, and that racial inequities threaten economic growth and prosperity as people of color become the majority.

This brief offers new research to inform the debate about equity and the future of the American economy. Using data on income by race, we calculate what total earnings and economic output would have been for the nation in 2012 if racial differ en ces were eliminated and all groups had similar average incomes as non-Hispanic whites. This analysis does not assume that everyone has the same income, rather that the income distribu-tions do not differ by race and ethnicity. We also examine how much of the income gap is attributable to wage differences versus employment differences (measured by hours worked).

In States That Don’t Expand Medicaid, Who Gets New Coverage Assistance Under the ACA and Who Doesn’t?

October 14, 2014 Comments off

In States That Don’t Expand Medicaid, Who Gets New Coverage Assistance Under the ACA and Who Doesn’t? (PDF)
Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

In states not expanding Medicaid, 6.3 million uninsured adults who could have qualified for Medicaid are instead ineligible, while 5.9 million other uninsured adults qualify for subsidized, private insurance. We compare these two groups and find the following:

Median income for such ineligible adults is 35 percent below poverty. For eligible adults, it is 175 percent of the federal poverty level. In dollars, median incomes are under $800 a month for the ineligible uninsured and over $2,000 a month for eligible adults. As a result:

  • Only 28.0 percent of uninsured black adults qualify for help paying for health coverage while fully 42.7 percent are ineligible because of nonexpansion. By contrast, more uninsured whites qualify (36.0 percent) than not (32.7 percent).
  • More uninsured women are ineligible than eligible (33.2 percent vs. 27.8 percent). Slightly more uninsured men qualify (30.9 percent) than not (29.7 percent).
  • Uninsured adults who are Hispanic, under age 25, or have at most a high school degree are more likely to be ineligible than eligible. The opposite is true for uninsured adults ages 45 to 64 or with at least some college education.

Uninsured adults ineligible for coverage assistance because of nonexpansion include 4.4 million with a high school degree or less, 3.1 million women, 1.6 million blacks, 1.5 million under age 25, and 1.3 million Latinos.

These contrasts involve coverage assistance that the ACA made available for the first time. However, before the ACA, nonexpansion states already provided Medicaid to 6.5 million adults, and 1.8 million uninsured adults were eligible for Medicaid but not enrolled.

100 Diverse Corporate Leaders in STEM

October 10, 2014 Comments off

100 Diverse Corporate Leaders in STEM
Source: STEMconnector

STEMconnector® is proud to, once again, bring together the collective thoughts and recommendations of one hundred business executives for a stronger STEM pipeline. This publication follows the success of 100 CEO Leaders in STEM (2013) and 100 Women Leaders in STEM (2012). All agree that Science, Technology, Engineering & Math (STEM) careers will determine the success of our nation in a competitive world and diverse leadership is in the heads of CEOs, their senior management and their boards of directors. After publishing 100 CEO Leaders in STEM, we developed a white paper on what the CEOs were saying about the future of STEM careers. When asked about the area where businesses should be focused in order to guarantee a strong STEM pipeline, number one response was technology, followed by women and diversity.

In this edition of 100 Leaders in STEM, we continue to reflect on the growing importance of women and diversity. Our hope is to empower not only the influencers of the students making a career decision, but also corporations looking to advance leadership. Throughout these pages, you will learn more about the opportunity, the challenges and how our 2014 leaders have overcome their own challenges and are actively supporting others coming up the jobs pipeline.

Residential Segregation: A Transatlantic Analysis

October 8, 2014 Comments off

Residential Segregation: A Transatlantic Analysis
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Residential segregation—the concentration of ethnic, national-origin, or socioeconomic groups in particular neighborhoods of a city or metropolitan area—is widely perceived as the antithesis of successful immigrant integration. Studies have linked this visible side effect of immigration and urbanization to a number of indications of poor well-being for individuals and communities, including unemployment, poor health, and social rifts. While segregation can provide certain protective benefits for immigrants living among their own ethnic or national-origin groups, it becomes problematic when accompanied by persistent overlapping inequalities.

A common perception is that minorities and immigrants self-segregate, which might be true for some new arrivals who choose to settle in ethnic enclaves where their social networks lead them. However, segregation occurs for many reasons, including housing market discrimination and decisions by the majority population on where to live. Patterns differ across countries and are thus more likely to reflect the deeper trends of social and economic exclusion in a particular context rather than inherent preferences of any group. For example, black segregation in the United States is greater than in the United Kingdom, reflecting a legacy of historic oppression, while Asian segregation is lower.

This report explores the problems ethnic residential segregation causes for individuals and communities and examines empirical evidence on the drivers of segregation in the United States and Europe. It then moves on to discuss policies to address residential segregation, which fall into two main categories: those that try to reduce segregation directly, like housing-related interventions, and those that target integration more broadly, including initiatives aimed at the underlying causes of segregation that seek to improve socioeconomic outcomes and nurture inter-group relations.

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