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Examining Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Probation Revocation: Summary Findings and Implications from a Multisite Study

July 15, 2014 Comments off

Examining Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Probation Revocation: Summary Findings and Implications from a Multisite Study
Source: Urban Institute

This brief presents summary findings from an Urban Institute study examining the degree of racial and ethnic disparity in probation revocation outcomes and the drivers of that disparity in four diverse probation jurisdictions. Black probationers were revoked at higher rates than white and Hispanic probationers in all study sites. Differences in risk assessment scores and criminal history were major contributors to the black–white disparity. Results for disparity to the disadvantage of Hispanic probationers were mixed. The brief concludes with a discussion of policy implications for probation and the criminal justice system as a whole.

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Policy Works: How Quality Programs Can Improve Social Mobility

July 11, 2014 Comments off

Policy Works: How Quality Programs Can Improve Social Mobility
Source: Brookings Institution

Children born into low-income families face multiple barriers to upward mobility: not just a lack of money, but a range of overlapping social, educational, economic and familial disadvantages. Sometimes these problems can seem intractable. But in fact, targeted, high-quality interventions can break down some of the obstacles faced by low-income children, as our new CCF policy brief shows. A single intervention at one point in time will likely only have a modest effect. But intervening at multiple points can have large impacts on class and race gaps in child outcomes and improve social mobility quite dramatically.

UK — What Does the 2011 Census Tell Us About Inter-ethnic Relationships?

July 11, 2014 Comments off

What Does the 2011 Census Tell Us About Inter-ethnic Relationships?
Source: Office for National Statistics

Key Points

  • Nearly 1 in 10 people (9% or 2.3 million) who were living as part of a couple were in an inter-ethnic relationship in England and Wales in 2011. This has increased from 7% in 2001.
  • People from the Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups were most likely to be in an inter-ethnic relationship (85%).
  • Outside the Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups, White Irish (71%), Other Black (62%) and Gypsy or Irish Travellers (50%) were the most likely to be in an inter-ethnic relationship.
  • White British (4%) were least likely to be in inter-ethnic relationships, followed by Bangladeshi (7%), Pakistani (9%) and Indian (12%) ethnic groups.
  • The biggest difference between the sexes was found with the Chinese group, where women were almost twice as likely (39%) to be in an inter-ethnic relationship as men (20%).
  • Of all people in inter-ethnic relationships, 4 in 10 (40%) included someone who was White British – the most common being between Other White and White British (16%).
  • People who were married (or in a civil partnership) were less likely to be in an inter-ethnic relationship than people who were co-habiting (8% compared with 12%).
  • Some 7% of dependent children lived in a household with an inter-ethnic relationship.
  • Pakistani (3%), Indian (3%) and Bangladeshi (2%) dependent children were least likely to live in a household with an inter-ethnic relationship.

AARP — African American/Black Social Issues Study

July 8, 2014 Comments off

African American/Black Social Issues Study
Source: AARP

This study examined the importance of key social issues facing African-Americans/ Blacks who are age 50 or older. It also gauged their optimism in regard to these social issues.

Key findings from the study show:

  • Access to high quality health care and having a financially secure retirement are the most important issues facing age 50+ African-Americans/Blacks age 50 and older.
  • The respondents are more optimistic that the country is moving in the right direction in regard to access to high quality health care.
  • There is less optimism that the country is moving in the right direction in regard to having a financially secure retirement.
  • Respondents age 75 and older are more optimistic than those ages 50-64 that the country is moving in the right direction about having a financially secure retirement.

From Living Arrangements to Labor Force Participation, New Analysis Looks at State of the Nation’s 65-and-Older Population

July 2, 2014 Comments off

From Living Arrangements to Labor Force Participation, New Analysis Looks at State of the Nation’s 65-and-Older Population
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

A new report released today by the U.S. Census Bureau provides the latest, comprehensive look at the nation’s population aged 65 and older, comprising 40.3 million in 2010.

The 65+ in the United States: 2010 report contains many findings about the 65-and-older population on topics such as socio-economic characteristics, size and growth, geographic distribution, and longevity and health. For example, Americans 65 and older living in a nursing home fell 20 percent between 2000 and 2010, from 1.6 million to 1.3 million. Meanwhile, the share in other care settings has been growing.

In the report, a number of trends and characteristics are separated by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin for the older population. The report incorporates research and findings from many recent studies that draw heavily from the 2010 Census and nationally representative surveys, such as the Current Population Survey, American Community Survey and National Health Interview Survey.

Facts for Features Special Edition — 50th Anniversary of the Civil Rights Act: July 2

June 29, 2014 Comments off

Facts for Features Special Edition — 50th Anniversary of the Civil Rights Act: July 2
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

On July 2, 1964, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law. This landmark law prohibits discrimination on the basis of race in public accommodations, in publicly owned or operated facilities, in employment and union membership and in the registration of voters. To mark the anniversary, the U.S. Census Bureau has gathered key statistics that measure changes in some characteristics of different race groups to date.

Economic scarcity alters the perception of race

June 26, 2014 Comments off

Economic scarcity alters the perception of race (PDF)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

When the economy declines, racial minorities are hit the hardest. Although existing explanations for this effect focus on institutional causes, recent psychological findings suggest that scarcity may also alter perceptions of race in ways that exacerbate discrimination. We tested the hypothesis that economic resource scarcity causes decision makers to perceive African Americans as “Blacker” and that this visual distortion elicits disparities in the allocation of resources. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that scarcity altered perceptions of race, lowering subjects’ psychophysical threshold for seeing a mixed-race face as “Black” as opposed to “White.” In studies 3 and 4, scarcity led subjects to visualize African American faces as darker and more “stereotypically Black,” compared with a control condition. When presented to naïve subjects, face representations produced under scarcity elicited smaller allocations than control-condition representations. Together, these findings introduce a novel perceptual account for the proliferation of racial disparities under economic scarcity.

Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering

June 13, 2014 Comments off

Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering
Source: National Science Foundation

Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering provides statistical information about the participation of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering education and employment. A formal report, now in the form of a digest, is issued every 2 years.

If He Can Do It, So Can They: Exposure to Counterstereotypically Successful Exemplars Prompts Automatic Inferences

June 10, 2014 Comments off

If He Can Do It, So Can They: Exposure to Counterstereotypically Successful Exemplars Prompts Automatic Inferences (PDF)
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

After incidental exposure to Blacks who succeeded in counterstereotypical domains (e.g., Brown University President Ruth Simmons, Nobel Laureate Toni Morrison), participants drew an automatic inference that race was not a success-inhibiting factor in modern society. Of note, participants’ automatic inferences were not simply guided by their explicit reasoning (i.e., their beliefs about what these exemplars signify about the state of race relations). Studies 1–3 demonstrated the basic automatic inference effect and provided evidence that such effects unfolded automatically, without intention or awareness. Study 4 replicated the effect in non-race-related domains. Subsequent studies examined what features of exemplars (Studies 5 and 6) and inference makers (Studies 7 and 8) prompt automatic inferences. Study 5 suggested that counterstereotypically successful exemplars prompt racism-denying inferences because they signal what is possible, even if not typical. Study 6 demonstrated that when these exemplars succeed in a stereotypical domain (e.g., Blacks in athletics), similar automatic inferences are not drawn. Those most likely to draw automatic inferences are people predisposed to approach the world with inferential thinking: participants dispositionally high in need for cognition (Study 7) or experimentally primed to think inferentially (Study 8).

See: Study discovers the downside of African-American success stories (EurekAlert!)

New Research on the Field of Black Male Achievement Highlights Successes and Opportunities

May 30, 2014 Comments off

New Research on the Field of Black Male Achievement Highlights Successes and Opportunities
Source: Foundation Center

The Foundation Center and the Open Society Foundations today released a report entitled Building a Beloved Community: Strengthening the Field of Black Male Achievement. It is the latest addition to a growing suite of resources at BMAfunders.org, a web portal that facilitates engagement, collaboration, and strategic decision making among those working to promote positive outcomes for black men and boys in America. Based on interviews with 50 leaders in the social, academic, government, and business sectors, the report maps the landscape of work in this area and offers recommendations for what it will take to strengthen the field moving forward.

This publication is a timely resource in light of a growing chorus of national initiatives focused on improving the economic, social, and physical well-being of black males. These include President Obama’s announcement in February launching My Brother’s Keeper, a public-private partnership supporting young men of color, and the formation of the Executives’ Alliance to Expand Opportunities for Boys and Men of Color, launched last year by 26 foundation leaders.

Underwater America: How the So-Called Housing Recovery is Bypassing Many Communities

May 30, 2014 Comments off

Underwater America: How the So-Called Housing Recovery is Bypassing Many Communities (PDF)
Source: Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society (UC-Berkeley)

In the first report of its kind, the authors analyze negative equity and foreclosure data together with race and income data, at a zip code level, as well as city and metropolitan area. The report uncovers the depth of the housing problem that persists in these hard hit communities, as well as how the legacy of predatory lending has meant a disproportionate negative impact on African American and Latino communities. One in ten Americans live in the 100 hardest hit cities where the number of underwater homeowners range from 22% to 56%, the report says.

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Exposure to Suicide Prevention Messaging, Confidence in One’s Ability to Intervene with Someone at Risk, and Resource Preferences

May 29, 2014 Comments off

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Exposure to Suicide Prevention Messaging, Confidence in One’s Ability to Intervene with Someone at Risk, and Resource Preferences
Source: RAND Corporation

Report assesses differences in racial and ethnic groups’ exposure to suicide prevention messaging, preferences for suicide crisis services, and confidence in their ability to intervene with persons at risk of suicide.

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Fatal Unintentional Drowning Among Persons Aged ≤29 Years — United States, 1999–2010

May 20, 2014 Comments off

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Fatal Unintentional Drowning Among Persons Aged ≤29 Years — United States, 1999–2010
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

In the United States, almost 4,000 persons die from drowning each year (1). Drowning is responsible for more deaths among children aged 1–4 years than any other cause except congenital anomalies (2). For persons aged ≤29 years, drowning is one of the top three causes of unintentional injury death (2). Previous research has identified racial/ethnic disparities in drowning rates (3,4). To describe these differences by age of decedent and drowning setting, CDC analyzed 12 years of combined mortality data from 1999–2010 for those aged ≤29 years. Among non-Hispanics, the overall drowning rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) was twice the rate for whites, and the rate for blacks was 1.4 times the rate for whites. Disparities were greatest in swimming pools, with swimming pool drowning rates among blacks aged 5–19 years 5.5 times higher than those among whites in the same age group. This disparity was greatest at ages 11–12 years; at these ages, blacks drown in swimming pools at 10 times the rate of whites. Drowning prevention strategies include using barriers (e.g., fencing) and life jackets, actively supervising or lifeguarding, teaching basic swimming skills and performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The practicality and effectiveness of these strategies varies by setting; however, basic swimming skills can be beneficial across all settings.

State of the Media: Audio Today—a Focus on African American and Hispanic Audiences

May 15, 2014 Comments off

State of the Media: Audio Today—a Focus on African American and Hispanic Audiences
Source: Nielsen

Radio consumption across the U.S. continues to grow, as nearly 92 percent of Americans 12 or older are tuning in each week. That’s 244.4 million of us, a record high.

The growth is remarkable considering the variety and number of media choices available to consumers today over-the-air and online via smartphones, tablets, notebooks/desktop computers and digital dashboards. Radio’s hyper-local nature uniquely serves each market which keeps it tied strongly to our daily lives no matter how (or where) we tune in.

The radio landscape is a diverse community of listeners from every corner of America that reflects the same population trends of the country as a whole. Radio is one of the original mass mediums, and as the U.S. population grows and the makeup of our citizens changes, radio audiences follow suit.

Alongside the national growth, African American and Hispanic listenership has also reached a historic high, as more than 71 million from these demographics tune in each week. Combined, these listeners account for nearly a third (29.6%) of the total national audience.

These multicultural audiences are highly engaged with radio all across the country, in markets large and small, where more than 3,000 different stations program to them specifically.

Free registration required to download report.

Black–white differences in intergenerational economic mobility in the United States

May 15, 2014 Comments off

Black–white differences in intergenerational economic mobility in the United States (PDF)
Source: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

The large and persistent gap in economic status between blacks and whites in the United States has been a topic of considerable interest among social scientists and policymakers for many decades. The historical legacy of slavery and segregation raises the question of how long black Americans are likely to remain a disadvantaged minority. Despite the enormous literature on black–white inequality and its historical trends, few studies have directly measured black–white differences in rates of intergenerational mobility, that is, the ability of families to improve their position in the income distribution from one generation to the next. Estimates of rates of intergenerational mobility by race can pro – vide insight on whether racial differences in the United States are likely to be eliminated and, if so, how long it might take. Furthermore, they might also help inform policymakers as to whether there are lingering racial differences in equality of opportunity and, if so, what the underlying sources for these differences are.

More generally, the relatively low rate of inter – generational mobility in the United States compared with other industrialized countries has been a growing concern to policymakers across the political spectrum. 1 Understanding the sources of racial differences in intergenerational mobility might also shed light on the mechanisms behind the relatively high degree of intergenerational persistence of inequality in the United States.

New Report Documents Black and Latino Communities at Higher Risk for Chemical Catastrophe

May 15, 2014 Comments off

New Report Documents Black and Latino Communities at Higher Risk for Chemical Catastrophe
Source: Center for Effective Government

The Environmental Justice and Health Alliance (EJHA), a national coalition of grassroots groups working on toxic chemical exposures that impact communities of color, released a new report today in collaboration with the Center for Effective Government and Coming Clean. The report – Who’s in Danger? A Demographic Analysis of Chemical Disaster Vulnerability Zones – uses data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Census to demonstrate an association between lower average housing values, incomes, and education levels, higher rates of poverty, and that many Black, Latino, and low-income populations are living within chemical disaster “vulnerability zones” of 3,433 industrial facilities across the U.S. The risk of danger is much greater for people Black & Latino communities than for the U.S. as a whole – the very definition of an unequal or disproportionate danger.

What Happens Before? A Field Experiment Exploring How Pay and Representation Differentially Shape Bias on the Pathway into Organizations

May 14, 2014 Comments off

What Happens Before? A Field Experiment Exploring How Pay and Representation Differentially Shape Bias on the Pathway into Organizations
Source: Social Science Research Network

Little is known about how discrimination against women and minorities manifests before individuals formally apply to organizations or how it varies within and between organizations. We address this knowledge gap through an audit study in academia of over 6,500 professors at top U.S. universities drawn from 89 disciplines and 259 institutions. We hypothesized that discrimination would appear at the informal “pathway” preceding entry to academia and would vary by discipline and university as a function of faculty representation and pay. In our experiment, professors were contacted by fictional prospective students seeking to discuss research opportunities prior to applying to a doctoral program. Names of students were randomly assigned to signal gender and race (Caucasian, Black, Hispanic, Indian, Chinese), but messages were otherwise identical. We found that faculty ignored requests from women and minorities at a higher rate than requests from Caucasian males, particularly in higher-paying disciplines and private institutions. Counterintuitively, the representation of women and minorities and discrimination were uncorrelated, suggesting that greater representation cannot be assumed to reduce discrimination. This research highlights the importance of studying what happens before formal entry points into organizations and reveals that discrimination is not evenly distributed within and between organizations.

Are Ghettos Good or Bad? Evidence from U.S. Internal Migration

May 6, 2014 Comments off

Are Ghettos Good or Bad? Evidence from U.S. Internal Migration (PDF)
Source: Institute for the Study of Labor

It is difficult to determine whether ghettos are good or bad, partly because racial segregation may have some effects that are unobservable. To overcome this challenge, we present a migration choice model that allows for estimating the overall effects of racial segregation. The key idea underlying our empirical approach is that if segregation indeed has a negative overall effect, migrants should be willing to give up some earnings to avoid living in segregated cities. Using decennial census data from 1980 to 2000, we provide new evidence that ghettos are bad. It is shown that both black and white migrants prefer to live in less segregated cities. For example, for a one-percentage-point reduction in the dissimilarity index, the estimated marginal willingness to pay of blacks is $436 (in 1999 dollars) in 2000. Among whites, this marginal willingness to pay is $301.

Evidence-Based HIV/STD Prevention Intervention for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

April 23, 2014 Comments off

Evidence-Based HIV/STD Prevention Intervention for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

This report summarizes published findings of a community-based organization in New York City that evaluated and demonstrated the efficacy of the Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention intervention in reducing sexual risk behaviors and increasing protective behaviors among black men who have sex with men (MSM). The intervention addressed social determinants of health (e.g., stigma, discrimination, and homophobia) that can influence the health and well-being of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection. This report also highlights efforts by CDC to disseminate this evidence-based behavioral intervention throughout the United States. CDC’s Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion to provide an example of a program that might be effective for reducing HIV infection- and STD-related disparities in the United States.

3MV uses small group education and interaction to increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors related to HIV/STD risk among black MSM. Since its dissemination by CDC in 2004, 3MV has been used in many settings, including health department- and community-based organization programs. The 3MV intervention is an important component of a comprehensive HIV and STD prevention portfolio for at-risk black MSM. As CDC continues to support HIV prevention programming consistent with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and its high-impact HIV prevention approach, 3MV will remain an important tool for addressing the needs of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection and other STDs.

Income of the Population 55 or Older, 2012 (released April 2014)

April 23, 2014 Comments off

Income of the Population 55 or Older, 2012
Source: Social Security Administration

This biennial report presents detailed statistical information on the major sources and amounts of income for people aged 55 or older. The tabulations focus on the major sources of total income by age, sex, marital status, race, and Hispanic origin. Several tables describe the economic situation of the aged with varying levels of Social Security benefits. Their poverty status is presented in terms of the income of the families they live with.

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