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In States That Don’t Expand Medicaid, Who Gets New Coverage Assistance Under the ACA and Who Doesn’t?

October 14, 2014 Comments off

In States That Don’t Expand Medicaid, Who Gets New Coverage Assistance Under the ACA and Who Doesn’t? (PDF)
Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

In states not expanding Medicaid, 6.3 million uninsured adults who could have qualified for Medicaid are instead ineligible, while 5.9 million other uninsured adults qualify for subsidized, private insurance. We compare these two groups and find the following:

Median income for such ineligible adults is 35 percent below poverty. For eligible adults, it is 175 percent of the federal poverty level. In dollars, median incomes are under $800 a month for the ineligible uninsured and over $2,000 a month for eligible adults. As a result:

  • Only 28.0 percent of uninsured black adults qualify for help paying for health coverage while fully 42.7 percent are ineligible because of nonexpansion. By contrast, more uninsured whites qualify (36.0 percent) than not (32.7 percent).
  • More uninsured women are ineligible than eligible (33.2 percent vs. 27.8 percent). Slightly more uninsured men qualify (30.9 percent) than not (29.7 percent).
  • Uninsured adults who are Hispanic, under age 25, or have at most a high school degree are more likely to be ineligible than eligible. The opposite is true for uninsured adults ages 45 to 64 or with at least some college education.

Uninsured adults ineligible for coverage assistance because of nonexpansion include 4.4 million with a high school degree or less, 3.1 million women, 1.6 million blacks, 1.5 million under age 25, and 1.3 million Latinos.

These contrasts involve coverage assistance that the ACA made available for the first time. However, before the ACA, nonexpansion states already provided Medicaid to 6.5 million adults, and 1.8 million uninsured adults were eligible for Medicaid but not enrolled.

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100 Diverse Corporate Leaders in STEM

October 10, 2014 Comments off

100 Diverse Corporate Leaders in STEM
Source: STEMconnector

STEMconnector® is proud to, once again, bring together the collective thoughts and recommendations of one hundred business executives for a stronger STEM pipeline. This publication follows the success of 100 CEO Leaders in STEM (2013) and 100 Women Leaders in STEM (2012). All agree that Science, Technology, Engineering & Math (STEM) careers will determine the success of our nation in a competitive world and diverse leadership is in the heads of CEOs, their senior management and their boards of directors. After publishing 100 CEO Leaders in STEM, we developed a white paper on what the CEOs were saying about the future of STEM careers. When asked about the area where businesses should be focused in order to guarantee a strong STEM pipeline, number one response was technology, followed by women and diversity.

In this edition of 100 Leaders in STEM, we continue to reflect on the growing importance of women and diversity. Our hope is to empower not only the influencers of the students making a career decision, but also corporations looking to advance leadership. Throughout these pages, you will learn more about the opportunity, the challenges and how our 2014 leaders have overcome their own challenges and are actively supporting others coming up the jobs pipeline.

Residential Segregation: A Transatlantic Analysis

October 8, 2014 Comments off

Residential Segregation: A Transatlantic Analysis
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Residential segregation—the concentration of ethnic, national-origin, or socioeconomic groups in particular neighborhoods of a city or metropolitan area—is widely perceived as the antithesis of successful immigrant integration. Studies have linked this visible side effect of immigration and urbanization to a number of indications of poor well-being for individuals and communities, including unemployment, poor health, and social rifts. While segregation can provide certain protective benefits for immigrants living among their own ethnic or national-origin groups, it becomes problematic when accompanied by persistent overlapping inequalities.

A common perception is that minorities and immigrants self-segregate, which might be true for some new arrivals who choose to settle in ethnic enclaves where their social networks lead them. However, segregation occurs for many reasons, including housing market discrimination and decisions by the majority population on where to live. Patterns differ across countries and are thus more likely to reflect the deeper trends of social and economic exclusion in a particular context rather than inherent preferences of any group. For example, black segregation in the United States is greater than in the United Kingdom, reflecting a legacy of historic oppression, while Asian segregation is lower.

This report explores the problems ethnic residential segregation causes for individuals and communities and examines empirical evidence on the drivers of segregation in the United States and Europe. It then moves on to discuss policies to address residential segregation, which fall into two main categories: those that try to reduce segregation directly, like housing-related interventions, and those that target integration more broadly, including initiatives aimed at the underlying causes of segregation that seek to improve socioeconomic outcomes and nurture inter-group relations.

The Personal News Cycle: A focus on African American and Hispanic news consumers

October 8, 2014 Comments off

The Personal News Cycle: A focus on African American and Hispanic news consumers
Source: American Press Institute

The predicted digital divide, in which people of color would be left behind in the use of technology, is not playing out as many of those forecasting the digital future anticipated, at least not when it comes to news, according to a new survey released today.

The two largest minority groups in the United States — African Americans and Hispanics — are in many ways using digital technology for news at similar rates as the American population overall. Yet these Americans do not believe that the growth of web and mobile media has fulfilled the promise of more coverage, and more accurate coverage, of underserved ethnic communities. The new survey — the second to be released by the Media Insight Project — was produced in collaboration with the Maynard Institute, New America Media, and the McCormick Foundation.

The new study adds to the growing body of evidence that the digital divide has not materialized as expected when it comes to technology use. The study also adds nuance to our understanding of the means by which people navigate and think about technology, particularly when it comes to news.

LGBT Demographics: Comparisons among population-based surveys

October 1, 2014 Comments off

LGBT Demographics: Comparisons among population-based surveys
Source: Williams Institute

This report uses four large, national, population-based surveys to consider the ways in which LGBT populations are demographically similar to or distinct from their non-LGBT counterparts in the United States. Comparisons of demographic characteristics are made among the surveys and, when possible, among sexual orientation identities to consider differences between those who identify as lesbian or gay and those who identify as bisexual (none of the surveys allow for separate identification of transgender individuals). Estimates of the percent of adults who identified as LGB or LGBT varied across surveys from between 2.2% and 4.0%, implying that between 5.2 million and 9.5 million individuals aged 18 and older are LGBT. Despite this variation in prevalence estimates, the analyzed surveys show many demographic similarities among respondents who choose to identify as LGB or LGBT. LGBT identity was more common among younger populations. LGBT populations generally shared the racial and ethnic characteristics of non-LGBT individuals. Adults were more likely to identify as LGBT in the Northeast and West than in the South and Midwest.

Ethnic Variation in Gender-STEM Stereotypes and STEM Participation: An Intersectional Approach

September 26, 2014 Comments off

Ethnic Variation in Gender-STEM Stereotypes and STEM Participation: An Intersectional Approach (PDF)
Source: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology

Stereotypes associating men and masculine traits with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are ubiquitous, but the relative strength of these stereotypes varies considerably across cultures. The present research applies an intersectional approach to understanding ethnic variation in gender-STEM stereotypes and STEM participation within an American university context. African American college women participated in STEM majors at higher rates than European American college women (Study 1, Study 2, and Study 4). Furthermore, African American women had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American women (Studies 2–4), and ethnic differences in implicit gender-STEM stereotypes partially mediated ethnic differences in STEM participation (Study 2 and Study 4). Although African American men had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American men (Study 4), ethnic differences between men in STEM participation were generally small (Study 1) or nonsignificant (Study 4). We discuss the implications of an intersectional approach for understanding the relationship between gender and STEM participation.

Credit Standards and Segregation

September 25, 2014 Comments off

Credit Standards and Segregation (PDF)
Source: INSEAD (via University of Chicago)

This paper explores the effects of changes in lending standards on racial segregation within metropolitan areas. Such changes affect neighborhood choices as well as aggregate prices and quantities in the housing market. Using the credit boom of 2000-2006 as a large-scale experiment, we put forward an IV strategy that predicts the relaxation of credit standards as the result of a credit supply shock predominantly affecting liquidity-constrained banks. The relaxed lending standards led to significant outflows of Whites from black and from racially mixed neighborhoods: without such credit supply shock, black households would have had between 2.3 and 5.1 percentage points more white neighbors in 2010.

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