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LGBT Demographics: Comparisons among population-based surveys

October 1, 2014 Comments off

LGBT Demographics: Comparisons among population-based surveys
Source: Williams Institute

This report uses four large, national, population-based surveys to consider the ways in which LGBT populations are demographically similar to or distinct from their non-LGBT counterparts in the United States. Comparisons of demographic characteristics are made among the surveys and, when possible, among sexual orientation identities to consider differences between those who identify as lesbian or gay and those who identify as bisexual (none of the surveys allow for separate identification of transgender individuals). Estimates of the percent of adults who identified as LGB or LGBT varied across surveys from between 2.2% and 4.0%, implying that between 5.2 million and 9.5 million individuals aged 18 and older are LGBT. Despite this variation in prevalence estimates, the analyzed surveys show many demographic similarities among respondents who choose to identify as LGB or LGBT. LGBT identity was more common among younger populations. LGBT populations generally shared the racial and ethnic characteristics of non-LGBT individuals. Adults were more likely to identify as LGBT in the Northeast and West than in the South and Midwest.

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Ethnic Variation in Gender-STEM Stereotypes and STEM Participation: An Intersectional Approach

September 26, 2014 Comments off

Ethnic Variation in Gender-STEM Stereotypes and STEM Participation: An Intersectional Approach (PDF)
Source: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology

Stereotypes associating men and masculine traits with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are ubiquitous, but the relative strength of these stereotypes varies considerably across cultures. The present research applies an intersectional approach to understanding ethnic variation in gender-STEM stereotypes and STEM participation within an American university context. African American college women participated in STEM majors at higher rates than European American college women (Study 1, Study 2, and Study 4). Furthermore, African American women had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American women (Studies 2–4), and ethnic differences in implicit gender-STEM stereotypes partially mediated ethnic differences in STEM participation (Study 2 and Study 4). Although African American men had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American men (Study 4), ethnic differences between men in STEM participation were generally small (Study 1) or nonsignificant (Study 4). We discuss the implications of an intersectional approach for understanding the relationship between gender and STEM participation.

Credit Standards and Segregation

September 25, 2014 Comments off

Credit Standards and Segregation (PDF)
Source: INSEAD (via University of Chicago)

This paper explores the effects of changes in lending standards on racial segregation within metropolitan areas. Such changes affect neighborhood choices as well as aggregate prices and quantities in the housing market. Using the credit boom of 2000-2006 as a large-scale experiment, we put forward an IV strategy that predicts the relaxation of credit standards as the result of a credit supply shock predominantly affecting liquidity-constrained banks. The relaxed lending standards led to significant outflows of Whites from black and from racially mixed neighborhoods: without such credit supply shock, black households would have had between 2.3 and 5.1 percentage points more white neighbors in 2010.

Young people of color mistrust police and legal system, report finds

September 24, 2014 Comments off

Young people of color mistrust police and legal system, report finds
Source: University of Chicago (Black Youth Project)

Black youth are far more likely than other young people to have negative experiences with the police, and believe overwhelmingly that the American legal system does not treat all groups equally, according to a new report from the Black Youth Project at the University of Chicago.

The report by the Black Youth Project, a national collaboration based at UChicago’s Center for the Study of Race, Politics and Culture, considers youth survey data from 2014 and 2009 in light of recent cases of racial tension, including the deaths of Michael Brown and Trayvon Martin.

The data in the report came from the 2009 Mobilization and Change survey, which included 3,202 respondents, and the 2014 Black Youth Project study, which surveyed 1,527 people between the ages of 18 and 29. The main findings include:

  • Black youth report the highest rate of harassment by the police (54.5 percent), nearly twice the rates of other young people.
  • Less than half of black youth (44.2 percent) trust the police, compared with 71.5 percent of white youth, 59.6 percent of Latino youth, and 76.1 percent of Asian American youth.
  • Substantially fewer black youth believe the police in their neighborhood are there to protect them (66.1 percent) compared to young people from other racial and ethnic groups.

Age patterns of racial/ethnic/nativity differences in disability and physical functioning in the United States

September 21, 2014 Comments off

Age patterns of racial/ethnic/nativity differences in disability and physical functioning in the United States
Source: Demographic Research

Background: Rapid population aging and increasing racial/ethnic and immigrant/native diversity make a broad documentation of U.S. health patterns during both mid- and late life particularly important.

Objective: We aim to better understand age- and gender-specific racial/ethnic and nativity differences in physical functioning and disability among adults aged 50 and above.

Methods: We aggregate 14 years of data from the National Health Interview Survey and calculate age- and gender-specific proportions of physical functioning and two types of disability for each population subgroup.

Results: Middle-aged foreign-born individuals in nearly every subgroup exhibit lower proportions of functional limitations and disability than U.S.-born whites. This pattern of immigrant advantage is generally reversed in later life. Moreover, most U.S.-born minority groups have significantly higher levels of functional limitations and disability than U.S.-born whites in both mid- and late life.

Conclusions: Higher levels of functional limitations and disability among U.S.-born minority groups and immigrant populations in older adulthood pose serious challenges for health providers and policymakers in a rapidly diversifying and aging population.

The Contributions of Selected Diseases to Disparities in Death Rates and Years of Life Lost for Racial/Ethnic Minorities in the United States, 1999–2010

September 11, 2014 Comments off

The Contributions of Selected Diseases to Disparities in Death Rates and Years of Life Lost for Racial/Ethnic Minorities in the United States, 1999–2010
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
Differences in risk for death from diseases and other causes among racial/ethnic groups likely contributed to the limited improvement in the state of health in the United States in the last few decades. The objective of this study was to identify causes of death that are the largest contributors to health disparities among racial/ethnic groups.

Methods
Using data from WONDER system, we measured the relative (age-adjusted mortality ratio [AAMR]) and absolute (difference in years of life lost [dYLL]) differences in mortality risk between the non-Hispanic white population and the black, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Asian/Pacific Islander populations for the 25 leading causes of death.

Results
Many causes contributed to disparities between non-Hispanic whites and blacks, led by assault (AAMR, 7.56; dYLL, 4.5 million). Malignant neoplasms were the second largest absolute contributor (dYLL, 3.8 million) to black–white disparities; we also found substantial relative and absolute differences for several cardiovascular diseases. Only assault, diabetes, and diseases of the liver contributed substantially to disparities between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics (AAMR ≥ 1.65; dYLL ≥ 325,000). Many causes of death, led by assault (AAMR, 3.25; dYLL, 98,000), contributed to disparities between non-Hispanic whites and American Indians/Alaska Natives; Asian/Pacific Islanders did not have a higher risk than non-Hispanic whites for death from any disease.

Conclusion
Assault was a substantial contributor to disparities in mortality among non-Asian racial/ethnic minority populations. Research and intervention resources need to target diseases (such as diabetes and diseases of the liver) that affect certain racial/ethnic populations.

Multiraciality in Cyberspace: Honorary Whiteness, Hypo-descent or Something Else?

September 5, 2014 Comments off

Multiraciality in Cyberspace: Honorary Whiteness, Hypo-descent or Something Else?
Source: University of Massachusetts-Amherst (Lundquist)

Mixed-race studies is a growing area of sociological inquiry, yet little is known concerning how individuals treat or perceive the growing U.S. population that identify with multiple racial categories. Using data from one of the largest dating websites in the United States, we respond to this gap in the literature and examine multiracial identification as an interactive process. We assess how the specific multiracial makeup of potential partners effect the responsiveness of online monoracial daters of varying racial identities and find that Honorary Whiteness is the main driving force behind monoracials’ treatment of multiracial users; our findings indicate that all multiracial daters receive a premium in preference relative to their monoracial counterparts; however, there is important racial subgroup variation. Asian-white daters in particular are afforded a heightened status in online dating by whites, while black multiracials are treated as an in-between group. For a few specific multiracial-gender groups we also discover an unexpected result that we call the Bonus effect, where multiracial daters receive a preferred status above all groups, including whites.

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