Archive

Archive for the ‘Law Library of Congress’ Category

Family Law: A Beginner’s Guide – Part 2: Child Custody, Support, and Adoption

July 23, 2014 Comments off

Family Law: A Beginner’s Guide – Part 2: Child Custody, Support, and Adoption
Source: Law Library of Congress

In Part Two of our Family Law Beginner’s Guide, we are shifting our focus to what the law says about children’s roles in the family—focusing on their custody and care. Below, please find information and resources for legal researchers regarding child custody, child support, and domestic adoption.

About these ads

Family Law: A Beginner’s Guide – Part 1: Formation and Dissolution of Marriage

July 23, 2014 Comments off

Family Law: A Beginner’s Guide – Part 1: Formation and Dissolution of Marriage
Source: Law Library of Congress

Whether it be in relation to marriage, the birth of children, adoption, or divorce, family law is one area of the law that affects nearly everyone. But even though family law is a part of daily life, legal issues in this area can quickly become complex. Below, we have collected a sampling of the marriage and divorce law resources available, both at the Law Library of Congress and on the free web, to help researchers get a better handle on these issues.

National Funding of Road Infrastructure

July 10, 2014 Comments off

National Funding of Road Infrastructure
Source: Law Library of Congress

This report examines the funding of roads and highways in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, England and Wales, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, South Africa, and Sweden. It provides a description of the infrastructure in the jurisdiction, information on the ownership and responsibility of the roads, and taxes or other ways of collecting money to fund the nation’s infrastructure. If applicable, a discussion of reforms or new initiatives is examined.

What Countries Criminalize Religious Conversion? Our New Report Examines this Question

June 30, 2014 Comments off

What Countries Criminalize Religious Conversion? Our New Report Examines this Question
Source: Law Library of Congress

A recent case in Sudan in which Meriam Yehya Ibrahim, a citizen who was at the time expecting her second child, was convicted of apostasy (renunciation of a religious faith) and adultery and sentenced to 100 lashes and death by hanging has led to condemnation around the world. Her conviction was due to her leaving Islam, marrying a Christian man, and refusing to recant. Amnesty International, which called Ibrahim’s sentence abhorrent, together with over 600,000 of its supporters, called for her immediate release. A group of United Nations human rights experts condemned the sentence, noting that the trial violated due process principles. The U.S. State Department called the death sentence deeply disturbing. A resolution condemning the sentence was introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives and a similar resolution was adopted in the U.S. Senate. Although, in what appears to be a response to the mounting pressure from the international community, the Sudanese government initially said that Ibrahim would be released, it quickly retracted the statement and Ibrahim’s case continues to unfold before an appeals court.

Sudan, which officially announced the introduction of an Islamic legal system in 1983, has executed at least one (access by subscription) person for apostasy since that time. Of course, Sudan is not the only country to criminalize apostasy. We recently completed a survey of twenty-three countries in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia and Southeast Asia that looked at the prevalence of apostasy being a capital offense (or as a lesser offense) and the frequency of its application.

We found that, in addition to Sudan, apostasy is a capital offense in Afghanistan, Brunei, Mauritania, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. However, our research indicated that, by and large, an apostasy charge or conviction can be vacated if the person denounces his or her new faith and returns to Islam.

Child Restraint and Seat Belt Regulations

June 26, 2014 Comments off

Child Restraint and Seat Belt Regulations
Source: Law Library of Congress

This report contains citations to the laws on seat belt use in Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Brazil, Canada, China, Cyprus, Egypt, England and Wales, Fiji, Ghana, Indonesia, Kiribati, Malta, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, and Vietnam, with information on provisions concerning children where available.

Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms

June 12, 2014 Comments off

Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms
Source: Law Library of Congress

The report discusses the legislation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and genetically modified (GM) plants and foods in Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Egypt, England and Wales, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, the Russian Federation, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, and the United States. The European Union and International Protocols. This report summarizes enacted laws on the cultivation, and sale of GMOs, as well as public opinion on GM products.

A bibliography is included.

Legislation on Use of Water in Agriculture

June 3, 2014 Comments off

Legislation on Use of Water in Agriculture
Source: Law Library of Congress

This report summarizes legislation concerning the agricultural use of water in nineteen countries in Latin America, the Middle East, and Central Asia. It includes a summary of the laws that govern the agricultural use of water, the government authorities in charge of the administration of water for agriculture, requirements for licenses to use water for this purpose, and relevant guidelines on conservation and quality. In addition, some of the surveys provide information on intercountry disputes over the use of water. A comparative summary is included.

Foreclosure Defense: A Beginner’s Guide

June 2, 2014 Comments off

Foreclosure Defense: A Beginner’s Guide
Source: Law Library of Congress

The loss of a home to foreclosure can be devastating financially and emotionally. In this guide, we hope to provide you with resources that can aid you in researching a defense to a foreclosure action. Please keep in mind that foreclosure defense is a complicated area of the law, and you are strongly advised to seek the advice of an attorney, including your local Legal Aid Society, if at all possible.

Preservation of Historical Cemeteries in Selected Countries

May 20, 2014 Comments off

Preservation of Historical Cemeteries in Selected Countries
Source: Law Library of Congress

This report provides an overview of laws, regulations, and court decisions governing the preservation of historic cemeteries in Brazil, China, Egypt, England, Eritrea, France, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Russia, Spain, and the United States. The country surveys reveal a wide variety of legal and regulatory approaches to this issue and the involvement of an array of actors at various jurisdictional levels.

Foreclosure Defense: A Beginner’s Guide

May 14, 2014 Comments off

Foreclosure Defense: A Beginner’s Guide
Source: Law Library of Congress

The loss of a home to foreclosure can be devastating financially and emotionally. In this guide, we hope to provide you with resources that can aid you in researching a defense to a foreclosure action. Please keep in mind that foreclosure defense is a complicated area of the law, and you are strongly advised to seek the advice of an attorney, including your local Legal Aid Society, if at all possible.

Hat tip: ResearchBuzz

Laws on Homosexuality in African Nations

March 17, 2014 Comments off

Laws on Homosexuality in African Nations
Source: Law Library of Congress

The following chart summarizes the treatment of homosexuality in the criminal laws of forty-nine African nations.  The provisions on criminal penalties only include penalties for acts involving adults, as all nations penalize sexual acts, whether homosexual or heterosexual, involving children.  Of the jurisdictions surveyed, only South Africa affirmatively permits same-sex marriage.

Regulation of Bitcoin in Selected Jurisdictions (updated)

March 11, 2014 Comments off

Regulation of Bitcoin in Selected Jurisdictions
Source: Law Library of Congress

This report surveys forty foreign jurisdictions and the European Union, reporting on any regulations or statements from central banks or government offices on the handling of bitcoins as well as any significant use of bitcoins in business transactions. Topics covered include whether bitcoins are recognized as legal tender, the possibility of negative impacts on the national currency, concerns about fraud, and how transactions using the Bitcoin system are viewed by tax authorities.

Of those countries surveyed, only a very few, notably China and Brazil, have specific regulations applicable to bitcoin use. There is widespread concern about the Bitcoin system’s possible impact on national currencies, its potential for criminal misuse, and the implications of its use for taxation. Overall, the findings of this report reveal that the debate over how to deal with this new virtual currency is still in its infancy.

Our New Report Looks at Bitcoin in 40 Countries

February 14, 2014 Comments off

Our New Report Looks at Bitcoin in 40 Countries
Source: Law Library of Congress

The regulation of bitcoins in different countries was an interesting topic for us to research – we are often asked to explain provisions in legislation or regulations, and frequently look at government policy documents as well, but in this case the issues are still relatively new and the vast majority of the more than forty jurisdictions that we looked at don’t actually have specific rules or detailed policies at this stage. We therefore primarily focused on what the regulatory bodies and senior officials of the countries have said so far, whether in official press releases, on their websites, or in interviews with media outlets.

Many of the jurisdictions appear to be essentially monitoring the situation with regard to bitcoins before deciding whether or what further action to take. Some countries have started to make statements or issue guidance regarding the risks of dealing in bitcoins and the applicability of existing laws, including tax laws. What this means of course is that there may well be new developments in this area in a relatively short space of time – our report is basically a brief snapshot of the situation as of January 2014. We welcome comments and even updates that you might know about!

Points-Based Immigration Systems

November 18, 2013 Comments off

Points-Based Immigration Systems
Source: Law Library of Congress

This report discusses the points-based selection processes used by Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom within the context of the immigration systems of these countries. The individual country surveys reveal that Australia operates a hybrid system for skilled migration that involves employer sponsorship and a points-based visa program that was revised in 2012. The UK’s points-based program, introduced in 2003, provides for five different immigrant tiers. Canada uses a points-based selection process for its Federal Skilled Workers Program, which is one of several programs within its “economic class” of immigration. The specific criteria considered within the points-based programs of the countries surveyed vary but can include such factors as the applicant’s age, educational background, language abilities, experience, employment arrangements, and general adaptability, among others. All of the countries surveyed appear to emphasize labor market needs in their current selection processes.

Regulations Concerning the Private Possession of Big Cats

November 12, 2013 Comments off

Regulations Concerning the Private Possession of Big Cats
Source: Law Library of Congress

This report surveys the different legal approaches taken by twenty-one countries and the European Union in regulating the private possession of big cats. All the countries surveyed are members of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Among them, China, India, Malaysia, Russia, Thailand, and Vietnam are tiger range countries where tigers still exist in the wild. China, India, and Russia were found to designate wild tigers as state property

Just Published: Law Library of Congress Report on Guest Worker Programs

September 17, 2013 Comments off

Just Published: Law Library of Congress Report on Guest Worker Programs
Source: Law Library of Congress

A report titled Guest Worker Programs was recently added to the list of reports posted on the Law Library of Congress website under “Current Legal Topics” where you can also find a range of other comparative law reports on various topics.

The Guest Worker Programs report is based on a study conducted by staff of the Global Legal Research Center (GLRC). The report describes programs for the admission and employment of guest workers in fourteen selected countries:

  • Australia,
  • Brazil,
  • Canada,
  • China,
  • Germany,
  • Israel,
  • Japan,
  • Mexico,
  • Norway,
  • the Russian Federation,
  • South Korea,
  • Spain,
  • the United Arab Emirates, and
  • the United Kingdom.

It also provides information on the European Union’s Proposal for a Directive on Seasonal Employment, the Association Agreement between the European Union and Turkey regarding migrants of Turkish origin, and the Multilateral Framework of the International Labour Organization on the admission of guest workers. The complete report is also available in PDF.

The report includes a comparative analysis and individual chapters on each country, the EU, and relevant international arrangements. It provides a general overview of a variety of immigration systems, and addresses issues such as eligibility criteria for the admission of guest workers and their families, guest workers’ recruitment and sponsorship, and visa requirements. The report further discusses the tying of temporary workers to their employers in some countries; the duration and the conditions that apply to switching employers; the terms, including the renewability, of guest workers’ visas; and the availability of a path to permanent status.

Federal Statutes: A Beginner’s Guide

September 13, 2013 Comments off

Federal Statutes: A Beginner’s Guide
Source: Law Library of Congress

One of the most frequent requests we receive from patrons at the reference desk at the Law Library Reading Room is for help in tracking down statutes passed by the United States Congress. While at first glance, finding a statute may seem straightforward, there are several features–such as the statute’s citation (or lack thereof), and its age, among many others–that might give rise to confusion and difficulty. In this Beginner’s Guide, we will try to de-mystify federal statutory research by explaining the statutory publication process and describing where each type of statutory publication can be found.

Hat tip: ResearchBuzz

Israel: Criminal and Ethical Aspects of Municipal Rabbis’ Letter Concerning the Sale or Rental of Property in Israel to Non-Jews

February 22, 2011 Comments off

Israel: Criminal and Ethical Aspects of Municipal Rabbis’ Letter Concerning the Sale or Rental of Property in Israel to Non-Jews
Source: Law Library of Congress

This report analyzes the criminal and ethical aspects of a letter published by fifty municipal rabbis in Israel alleging that Jewish law prohibits the sale or rental of property in Israel to non-Jews. It suggests that the publication of the letter may have constituted an offense under Israel’s penal law and may also subject its signatories to ethical penalties. It further suggests that at least with regard to one of the signatories, an indictment under the Penal Law is highly likely.

+ Full Report (PDF)

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 894 other followers