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Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive Review and Research Agenda

September 9, 2013 Comments off

Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive Review and Research Agenda
Source: Journal of Caffeine Research

Caffeine is the most commonly used drug in the world. Although consumption of low to moderate doses of caffeine is generally safe, an increasing number of clinical studies are showing that some caffeine users become dependent on the drug and are unable to reduce consumption despite knowledge of recurrent health problems associated with continued use. Thus, the World Health Organization and some health care professionals recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical disorder. In this comprehensive literature review, we summarize published research on the biological evidence for caffeine dependence; we provide a systematic review of the prevalence of caffeine dependence and rates of endorsement of clinically meaningful indicators of distress and functional impairment among habitual caffeine users; we discuss the diagnostic criteria for Caffeine Use Disorder—a condition for further study included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.); and we outline a research agenda to help guide future clinical, epidemiological, and genetic investigations of caffeine dependence. Numerous controlled laboratory investigations reviewed in this article show that caffeine produces behavioral and physiological effects similar to other drugs of dependence. Moreover, several recent clinical studies indicate that caffeine dependence is a clinically meaningful disorder that affects a nontrivial proportion of caffeine users. Nevertheless, more research is needed to determine the reliability, validity, and prevalence of this clinically important health problem.

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Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drink Use and Sexual Risk-Taking: Casual, Intoxicated, and Unprotected Sex

July 26, 2012 Comments off

Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drink Use and Sexual Risk-Taking: Casual, Intoxicated, and Unprotected Sex (PDF)
Source: Journal of Caffeine Research (via University of Buffalo)

Objective:
This study examined the confluence of several behaviors common to U.S. young adults: caffeinated
energy drink use, alcohol use, and sexual risk-taking. The author examined relationships between the use of energy drinks mixed with alcohol (AmEDs) and three sexual risk behaviors: casual sex (i.e., intercourse with a nonexclusive and/or nonromantic partner), intoxicated sex (i.e., intercourse while under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs), and unprotected sex (i.e., intercourse without use of a condom).

Method:
Logistic regression analyses were employed to analyze data from a cross-sectional survey of 648 sexually
active undergraduate students at a large public university.

Results:
After controlling for risk-taking norms and frequency of noncaffeinated alcohol use, AmED use was
associated with elevated odds of casual sex and intoxicated sex but not unprotected sex.

Conclusions:
Although further studies are needed to test for event-level relationships, AmED use should be considered a possible risk factor for potentially health-compromising sexual behaviors.

See: Study links alcohol/energy drink mixes with casual, risky sex (EurekAlert!)

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