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Obesity and Economic Environments

May 28, 2014 Comments off

Obesity and Economic Environments (PDF)
Source: CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians

This review summarizes current understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs. Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline in healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time; however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if one wants to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, one needs to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior toward healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could close only part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the United States and this may continue until the role of environmental factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role in shaping the understanding of the causes of obesity. CA Cancer J Clin 2014;000:000-000. VC 2014 American Cancer Society.

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Colorectal cancer statistics, 2014

March 27, 2014 Comments off

Colorectal cancer statistics, 2014
Source: CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians

Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. This article provides an overview of colorectal cancer statistics, including the most current data on incidence, survival, and mortality rates and trends. Incidence data were provided by the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data were provided by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2014, an estimated 71,830 men and 65,000 women will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 26,270 men and 24,040 women will die of the disease. Greater than one-third of all deaths (29% in men and 43% in women) will occur in individuals aged 80 years and older. There is substantial variation in tumor location by age. For example, 26% of colorectal cancers in women aged younger than 50 years occur in the proximal colon, compared with 56% of cases in women aged 80 years and older. Incidence and death rates are highest in blacks and lowest in Asians/Pacific Islanders; among males during 2006 through 2010, death rates in blacks (29.4 per 100,000 population) were more than double those in Asians/Pacific Islanders (13.1) and 50% higher than those in non-Hispanic whites (19.2). Overall, incidence rates decreased by approximately 3% per year during the past decade (2001–2010). Notably, the largest drops occurred in adults aged 65 and older. For instance, rates for tumors located in the distal colon decreased by more than 5% per year. In contrast, rates increased during this time period among adults younger than 50 years. Colorectal cancer death rates declined by approximately 2% per year during the 1990s and by approximately 3% per year during the past decade. Progress in reducing colorectal cancer death rates can be accelerated by improving access to and use of screening and standard treatment in all populations.

Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2012

June 18, 2012 Comments off

Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2012
Source: CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians

Although there has been considerable progress in reducing cancer incidence in the United States, the number of cancer survivors continues to increase due to the aging and growth of the population and improvements in survival rates. As a result, it is increasingly important to understand the unique medical and psychosocial needs of survivors and be aware of resources that can assist patients, caregivers, and health care providers in navigating the various phases of cancer survivorship. To highlight the challenges and opportunities to serve these survivors, the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute estimated the prevalence of cancer survivors on January 1, 2012 and January 1, 2022, by cancer site. Data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries were used to describe median age and stage at diagnosis and survival; data from the National Cancer Data Base and the SEER-Medicare Database were used to describe patterns of cancer treatment. An estimated 13.7 million Americans with a history of cancer were alive on January 1, 2012, and by January 1, 2022, that number will increase to nearly 18 million. The 3 most prevalent cancers among males are prostate (43%), colorectal (9%), and melanoma of the skin (7%), and those among females are breast (41%), uterine corpus (8%), and colorectal (8%). This article summarizes common cancer treatments, survival rates, and posttreatment concerns and introduces the new National Cancer Survivorship Resource Center, which has engaged more than 100 volunteer survivorship experts nationwide to develop tools for cancer survivors, caregivers, health care professionals, advocates, and policy makers. CA Cancer J Clin 2012. Published 2012 American Cancer Society.

See: New Report Estimates Nearly 18 Million Cancer Survivors in the US by 2022 (Science Daily)

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