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In Search of a Match: A Guide for Helping Students Make Informed College Choices

April 6, 2015 Comments off

In Search of a Match: A Guide for Helping Students Make Informed College Choices
Source: MDRC

This guide is designed for counselors, teachers, and advisers who work with high school students from low-income families and students who are the first in their families to pursue a college education. It offers strategies for helping these students identify, consider, and enroll in “match” colleges — that is, selective colleges that are a good fit for students based on their academic profiles, financial considerations, and personal needs. Many of the suggestions in this guide are based on insights and lessons learned from the College Match Program, a pilot program that MDRC codeveloped with several partners and implemented in Chicago and New York City to address the problem of “undermatching,” or what happens when capable high school students enroll in colleges for which they are academically overqualified or do not apply to college at all.

Cognitive Predictors and Age-Based Adverse Impact Among Business Executives

April 5, 2015 Comments off

Cognitive Predictors and Age-Based Adverse Impact Among Business Executives (PDF)
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology

Age differences on measures of general mental ability and specific cognitive abilities were examined in 2 samples of job applicants to executive positions as well as a mix of executive/nonexecutive positions to determine which predictors might lead to age-based adverse impact in making selection and advancement decisions. Generalizability of the pattern of findings was also investigated in 2 samples from the general adult population. Age was negatively related to general mental ability, with older executives scoring lower than younger executives. For specific ability components, the direction and magnitude of age differences depended on the specific ability in question. Older executives scored higher on verbal ability, a measure most often associated with crystallized intelligence. This finding generalized across samples examined in this study. Also, consistent with findings that fluid abilities decline with age, older executives scored somewhat lower on figural reasoning than younger executives, and much lower on a letter series test of inductive reasoning. Other measures of inductive reasoning, such as Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices, also showed similar age group mean differences across settings. Implications for employee selection and adverse impact on older job candidates are discussed.

Utilization Patterns and Out-of-Pocket Expenses for Different Health Care Services Among American Retirees

April 2, 2015 Comments off

Utilization Patterns and Out-of-Pocket Expenses for Different Health Care Services Among American Retirees
Source: Employee Benefit Research Institute

Executive Summary

  • This study separates the more predictable health care expenses in retirement for older Americans (ages 65 and above) from the less predictable ones. Based on utilization patterns and expenses, doctor visits, dentist visits and usage of prescription drugs are categorized as recurring health care services. Overnight hospital stays, overnight nursing-home stays, outpatient surgery, home health care and usage of special facilities are categorized as non-recurring health care services.
  • The data show that recurring health care costs remain stable throughout retirement. The average annual expenditure for recurring health care expenses among the Medicare-eligible population was $1,885. Assuming a 2 percent rate of inflation and 3 percent rate of return, a person with a life expectancy of 90 would require $40,798 at age 65 to fund his or her recurring health care expenses. This does not include recurring expenses like insurance premiums or over-the-counter medications.
  • Usage and expenses of non-recurring health care services go up with age. Nursing-home stays in particular can be very expensive. For people ages 85 and above, the average and the 90th percentile of nursing-home expenses were $24,185 and $66,600 during a two year period, respectively.
  • Nursing-home stays, home health care usage, and overnight hospital stays are much higher in the period preceding death. More than 50 percent in every age group above age 65 received in-home health care from a medically trained person before death. For those ages 85 and above, 62.3 percent had overnight nursing-home stays before death and 51.6 percent were living in a nursing home prior to death.
    Some recurring and non-recurring expenses were also much higher before death.
  • Usage of recurring health care services generally go up with income and usage of non-recurring health care services—except outpatient surgery and special facilities—goes down with income.
  • The top income quartile spent significantly more on nursing-home and home health care expenses than the rest. This could be a result of Medicaid coverage for the lower-income, lower-asset groups.
  • Women above 85 have significantly higher nursing-home usage than men. The rest of the differences between men and women are small.

Number of Jobs Held, Labor Market Activity, and Earnings Growth Among the Youngest Baby Boomers: Results from a Longitudinal Survey Summary

April 2, 2015 Comments off

Number of Jobs Held, Labor Market Activity, and Earnings Growth Among the Youngest Baby Boomers: Results from a Longitudinal Survey Summary
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

The average person born in the latter years of the baby boom (1957-1964) held 11.7 jobs from age 18 to age 48, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Nearly half of these jobs were held from ages 18 to 24.

Social Influence on Risk Perception During Adolescence

April 1, 2015 Comments off

Social Influence on Risk Perception During Adolescence
Source: Psychological Science

Adolescence is a period of life in which peer relationships become increasingly important. Adolescents have a greater likelihood of taking risks when they are with peers rather than alone. In this study, we investigated the development of social influence on risk perception from late childhood through adulthood. Five hundred and sixty-three participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations and were then informed about the ratings of a social-influence group (teenagers or adults) before rating each situation again. All age groups showed a significant social-influence effect, changing their risk ratings in the direction of the provided ratings; this social-influence effect decreased with age. Most age groups adjusted their ratings more to conform to the ratings of the adult social-influence group than to the ratings of the teenager social-influence group. Only young adolescents were more strongly influenced by the teenager social-influence group than they were by the adult social-influence group, which suggests that to early adolescents, the opinions of other teenagers about risk matter more than the opinions of adults.

Living in the United States: A Guide for Immigrant Youth

March 31, 2015 Comments off

Living in the United States: A Guide for Immigrant YouthImmigrat (PDF)
Source: Immigrant Legal Resource Center

Immigration issues are tricky. There are many ways in which your immigration status—whether you’re a green card holder or undocumented—can impact your ability to get a job, go to college, or even remain in the United States. That’s why we created this resource especially for immigrant youth. We hope you find it useful.

An Examination of Risky Drinking Behaviors and Motivations for Alcohol Use in a College Sample

March 30, 2015 Comments off

An Examination of Risky Drinking Behaviors and Motivations for Alcohol Use in a College Sample
Source: Journal of American College Health

Objective:
The current study examined (1) drinking motives as a mediator of risky drinking behaviors (ie, pregaming and drinking games) and alcohol-related problems and (2) whether gender moderates the association between risky drinking behaviors and negative consequences. Participants: Participants (N = 368; 68% female) were drinkers aged 18 to 25. Data were collected from September to November 2010 and January to May 2011.

Methods:
Participants completed measures regarding typical pregaming and drinking game alcohol consumption, drinking motives, and alcohol-related consequences.

Results:
Social, coping, and enhancement motives partially explained relationships, with enhancement motives explaining the most variance for pregaming (31%) and drinking games (44%). Relationships between risky drinking and consequences were not moderated by gender.

Conclusions:
Drinking to enhance positive affect may be the most salient motivation for drinking related to pregaming and drinking games for college drinkers. Findings have implications for interventions tailored to students engaging in various heavy drinking practices.

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