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The Causes and Consequences of Financial Fraud Among Older Americans

February 18, 2015 Comments off

The Causes and Consequences of Financial Fraud Among Older Americans
Source: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College

Financial fraud is a major threat to older Americans, and this problem is expected to grow as the baby boom generation retires and more retirees manage their own retirement accounts. We use a unique dataset to examine the causes and consequences of financial fraud among older Americans. First, we find that decreasing cognition is associated with higher scam susceptibility scores and is predictive of fraud victimization. Second, overconfidence in one’s financial knowledge is associated with fraud victimization. Third, fraud victims increase their willingness to take financial risks relative to propensity-matched non-victims.

DHS OIG — U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Alternatives to Detention (Revised)

February 18, 2015 Comments off

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Alternatives to Detention (Revised) (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General

Why We Did This
ICE’s Intensive Supervision Appearance Program offers alternatives to detention. We reviewed whether: (1) the rate at which individuals in the Intensive Supervision Appearance Program have absconded or committed criminal acts has been reduced since 2009; (2) ICE can improve the effectiveness of its alternatives to detention program, either by revising or expanding its Intensive Supervision Appearance Program contract, or through other cost-effective means; and (3) ICE’s Risk Classification Assessment is effective.

What We Found
According to U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the Intensive Supervision Appearance Program is effective because, using its performance metrics, few program participants abscond. However, ICE has changed how it uses the program and no longer supervises some participants throughout their immigration proceedings. As a result, ICE cannot definitively determine whether the Intensive Supervision Appearance Program has reduced the rate at which aliens, who were once in the program but who are no longer participating, have absconded or been arrested for criminal acts. ICE should adjust its performance metrics to reflect changes in its criteria for program participation.

ICE instructed field offices to consider redetaining noncompliant Intensive Supervision Appearance Program participants, but most field offices do not have sufficient funding for detention bed space to accommodate all noncompliant participants. ICE could improve the effectiveness of the program by allocating some Intensive Supervision Appearance Program contract funds to redetain noncompliant participants.

ICE developed a Risk Classification Assessment to assist its release and custody classification decisions. However, the tool is time consuming, resource intensive, and not effective in determining which aliens to release or under what conditions.

Drug Courts

February 17, 2015 Comments off

Drug Courts (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs

Drug courts are specialized court docket programs that target criminal defendants and offenders, juvenile offenders, and parents with pending child welfare cases who have alcohol and other drug dependency problems. Although drug courts vary in target populations and resources, programs are generally managed by a multidisciplinary team including judges, prosecutors, defense attorneys, community corrections, social workers and treatment service professionals. Support from stakeholders representing law enforcement, the family and the community is encouraged throu

Legal Implications of Student-Based Relationships in Higher Education

February 17, 2015 Comments off

Legal Implications of Student-Based Relationships in Higher Education (PDF)
Source: Western Kentucky University

Many business entities have faced no liability in regards to customer-based crimes. However, colleges and universities are faced with the constant concern of liability in regards to “customer-based relationships” (its students). One would assume that the student themselves may be held liable for any personal damages they cause, but depending on the actions taken by the college or university, the university as a whole and its officials may be faced with tort liability. With this being said, university officials must be ever cognizant of the expectations of compliance within state and federal mandates. The Federal and State governments do grant immunity from liability when procedures are properly followed; however, the law does state that misunderstandings and absence of knowledge of protocol do not fall under the immunity from liability. With these standards for immunity, it is important that all university officials and employees be aware of compliance guidelines for various facets of student-based relationships in order to prevent liability.

Prosecuting Alcohol-Fueled Sexual Assault (2007)

February 16, 2015 Comments off

Prosecuting Alcohol-Fueled Sexual Assault (PDF)
Source: National District Attorneys Association

Despite the prevalence of alcohol-facilitated sexual assault (AFSA), a n umber of barriers to successful prosecution exist. First, the use of alcohol in American society is quite common. Jurors may question whether the offender actually committed rape or just had consensual, albeit drunken, sex with the victim. Second, jurors may view a voluntarily intoxicated victim with skepticism or dislike, and may assume that she put herself in danger with her behavior. Research has demonstrated that individuals tend to view women who drink or get drunk as more sexual- ly available, and more likely to engage in sexual acts than women who abstain from alcohol. Third, AFSA cases are complicated by the physical manifestations of alcohol. “Alcohol decreases inhibitions, impairs percep- tion, and may cause amnesia and/or loss of consciousness, especially if used in conjunction with other drugs.” Victims may not be able to clear- ly perceive and/or remember the details of the assault.

This monograph discusses the prosecution of AFSA with a specific focus on AFSA when the victim is voluntarily intoxicated. It begins with a basic overview of toxicology. Next, it suggests a three-step process for prosecuting AFSA cases: (1) making the charging decision; (2) analyzing credibility and corroboration; and (3) trying the case. Finally, the monograph provides techniques for overcoming common defenses.

DoD Releases Annual Report on Sexual Harassment and Violence at the Military Service Academies

February 13, 2015 Comments off

DoD Releases Annual Report on Sexual Harassment and Violence at the Military Service Academies
Source: U.S. Department of Defense

Today, the Department of Defense released its Annual Report on Sexual Harassment and Violence at the Military Service Academies for Academic Program Year (APY) 2013 – 2014, and announced five directives to further strengthen the academies’ and department’s prevention and response programs.

This year’s report includes an anonymous survey of cadets and midshipmen conducted every two years by the Defense Manpower Data Center, as well as self-assessments conducted by each academy.

The survey indicates that cadets and midshipmen at all three academies experienced fewer sexual assaults in APY 13-14 than in APY 11-12. In 2014, 8.2 percent of academy women and 1.1 percent of academy men indicated experiencing unwanted sexual contact in the year before being surveyed, down from 12.4 percent and 2.0 percent, respectively.

+ DoD Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office

CRS — Sex Trafficking of Children in the United States: Overview and Issues for Congress (January 28, 2015)

February 12, 2015 Comments off

Sex Trafficking of Children in the United States: Overview and Issues for Congress (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

The trafficking of individuals within U.S borders is commonly referred to as domestic human trafficking, and it occurs in every state of the nation. One form of domestic human trafficking is sex trafficking. Research indicates that most victims of sex trafficking into and within the United States are women and children, and the victims include U.S. citizens and noncitizens alike. Recently, Congress has focused attention on domestic sex trafficking, including the prostitution of children, which is the focus of this report.

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