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Local determinants of crime: Do military bases matter?

October 14, 2014 Comments off

Local determinants of crime: Do military bases matter? (PDF)
Source: Demographic Research

BACKGROUND
The majority of crime is committed by young men, and young men comprise the majority of the military – base population. The confluence of these two empirical regularities invites a scientific look at the contribution of a military base to criminal activity in its geographic periphery.

OBJECTIVE
We estimate the impact on criminal activity of the massive base realignments and closures that occurred in Germany for the period 2003 – 2007. In particular, we examine breaking and entering, automobile – related crime, violent crime, and drug – related crime.

METHODS
We use a fixed – effect model to account for time – invariant unobservable elements in a panel of 298 military bases. We also take advantage of geographic information system software to mitigate issues arising from the spatial nature of the dataset.

RESULTS
The estimates indicate that the base realignments and closures did not have a significant impact on criminal activity surrounding base s . Traditional correlates of crime remain statistically significant in our specifications.

CONCLUSIONS
Although crime is largely committed by young men, we find that the closure of military bases, which are staffed primarily by young men, does not have an impact on criminal activity. For matters of regional policy, we find that arguments pertaining to criminal activity generated by milit ary bases are not supported by data

COMMENTS
Economic wellbeing, as measured by real GNP and relative disposable income, is negatively associated with crime. Higher unemployment has a positive association. Regions with higher percentage of foreigners also have higher levels of crime.

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Criminal Victimization, 2013

October 9, 2014 Comments off

Criminal Victimization, 2013
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics

Presents 2013 estimates of rates and levels of criminal victimization in the United States. This bulletin includes violent victimization (rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault) and property victimization (burglary, motor vehicle theft, and property theft). It describes the annual change from 2012 and analyzes 10-year trends from 2004 through 2013. The bulletin includes estimates of domestic violence, intimate partner violence, and injury and use of weapons in violent victimization. It also describes the characteristics of victims. The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) collects information on nonfatal crimes, reported and not reported to the police, against persons age 12 or older from a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. During 2013, about 90,630 households and 160,040 persons were interviewed for the NCVS.

AAS Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide 2014

October 9, 2014 Comments off

AAS Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide 2014 (PDF)
Source: American Association of Suicidology

Among those sexually abused as children, odds of suicide attempts were 2-4 times higher among women and 4-11 times higher in men compared to those not abused and controlling for other adversities.

2014 Deloitte-NASCIO Cybersecurity Study

October 9, 2014 Comments off

2014 Deloitte-NASCIO Cybersecurity Study
Source: Deloitte/NASCIO

The third biennial Deloitte-National Association of State Chief Information Officers (NASCIO) Cybersecurity Study, conducted in the spring of 2014, assessed the state of cybersecurity initiatives administered by state chief information security officers (CISOs). CISOs from 49 states participated in the survey and 186 business leaders from a broad cross-section of states responded to a parallel survey. The study highlights the challenges that states and chief information officers (CIOs)/CISOs face in protecting states’ critically important systems and data. The survey results call for greater communication and collaboration with business leaders.

The following key themes emerged from the report:

  • Maturing role of the CISO: State CISO role continues to gain legitimacy in authority and reporting relationships. In 2014, 98% of respondents state they have a CISO role, and 90% of these roles report to the CIO. The responsibilities of the position are becoming more consistent across states, yet expanding. CISOs today are responsible for establishing a strategy, execution of that strategy, risk management, communicating effectively with senior executives and business leaders, complying with regulators, and leading the charge against escalating cyber threats using various security technologies.
  • Continuing budget-strategy disconnect: The improving economy and states’ growing commitment to cybersecurity have led to an increase – albeit small, in budgets. 48% of respondents noted an increase in budget; however, budget is still the #1 barrier. CISOs have also been successful at tapping supplemental resources, whether from other state agencies, federal funding, or various agency and business leaders. Nevertheless, budgets are still not sufficient to fully implement effective cybersecurity programs.
  • Cyber complexity challenge: CISOs are concerned about the intensity, volume and complexity of cyber threats that run the gamut from malicious code to zero-day attacks. Sophistication of cyber threats is the #2 top barrier. 74.5% of respondents cited malicious code as the top external threat. CISOs need to stay abreast of existing and developing threats and increasing regulations to establish and maintain the security of an information environment that now increasingly extends from internal networks to cloud and mobile devices.
  • Talent Crisis: The skill sets needed for effective cybersecurity protection and monitoring are in heavy demand across all sectors. 59% of CISO respondents choose Talent as one of the top barriers. State CISOs are struggling to recruit and retain people with the right skills, and they will need to establish career growth paths and find creative ways to build their cybersecurity teams.

CRS — Reauthorizing the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Issues for Consideration (September 30, 2014)

October 8, 2014 Comments off

Reauthorizing the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Issues for Consideration (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) is located in the Executive Office of the President and has the responsibility for creating policies, priorities, and objectives for the federal Drug Control Program. This national program is aimed at reducing the use, manufacturing, and trafficking of illicit drugs and the reduction of drug-related crime and violence and of drug-related health consequences. The director of ONDCP has primary responsibilities of developing a comprehensive National Drug Control Strategy (Strategy) to direct the nation’s anti-drug efforts; developing a National Drug Control Budget (Budget) to implement the National Drug Control Strategy, including determining the adequacy of the drug control budgets submitted by contributing federal Drug Control Program agencies; and evaluating the effectiveness of the National Drug Control Strategy implementation by the various agencies contributing to the Drug Control Program. Authorization for ONDCP expired at the end of FY2010, but it has continued to receive appropriations. Congress, while continuously charged with ONDCP’s oversight, is now faced with its possible reauthorization.

Is Your Company Ready for a Big Data Breach? The Second Annual Study on Data Breach Preparedness

October 7, 2014 Comments off

Is Your Company Ready for a Big Data Breach? The Second Annual Study on Data Breach Preparedness (PDF)
Source: Ponemon Institute/Experian
From press release:

Experian Data Breach Resolution, a leader in helping businesses plan for and mitigate consumer risk following data breach incidents, released a new study with the Ponemon Institute on data breach preparedness. The second annual study, Is Your Company Ready for a Big Data Breach?, found that executives are concerned about the effectiveness of their data breach response, despite taking the basic steps to be prepared.

Key findings from the study include:
• Companies understand the importance of data breach preparedness
With data breaches making headlines the world over, awareness for data security is at an all-time high and more companies are preparing with a data breach response plan.
• Data breaches are becoming ubiquitous with almost half (43 percent) of organizations surveyed having suffered at least one security incident, up 10 percent from 2013.
• As a result, more companies have a data breach response plan in place (73 percent), up 12 percent from 2013.
• Forty-eight percent of organizations increased investments in security technologies in the past 12 months.Confidence amongst senior executives to manage a data breach remains low

Despite increased security investment and having incident response plans in place, when asked in detail about the preparedness of their organization, survey respondents were not confident in how they would handle a major issue.
• Sixty-eight percent of respondents felt unprepared to respond to a data breach.
• Most haven’t or don’t regularly update their plan (78%) to account for changes in threats or as processes at a company change.
• Thirty percent of respondents felt their data breach response plan was ineffective.
• Concerns are not just operational. Many companies were more concerned about threats being harder to manage for IT security teams.

Executives recognize what needs to happen to improve their incident response
• The vast majority of executives (70 percent) surveyed want more oversight and participation from board members, chairman and CEO for data breach preparedness.
• Seventy-seven percent suggested more fire-drills to practice data breach response would help them be more prepared.
• Respondents ranked identity theft protection products and access to a call center as the two most important services a company should provide customers following a breach.
• Sixty-nine percent indicated additional funding as a major need to improve response activity.

Who Pays for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Exams? It Is Not the Victim’s Responsibility

October 7, 2014 Comments off

Who Pays for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Exams? It Is Not the Victim’s Responsibility (PDF)
Source: Urban Institute

The Violence Against Women Act of 2005 requires that sexual assault victims must not be required to file law enforcement reports in order to receive free exams. This study aimed to examine how states are meeting these goals. We found victim compensation funds are by far the largest funder of exams across the country. In the 19 jurisdictions included in case studies, victims generally received free exams without having to report if they did not want to. However, barriers to even accessing the exam prevent some victims from seeking help.

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