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Archive for the ‘diseases and conditions’ Category

Spinal Manipulation

February 23, 2015 Comments off

Spinal Manipulation
Source: National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH)

Spinal manipulation—sometimes called “spinal manipulative therapy”—is practiced by health care professionals such as chiropractors, osteopathic physicians, naturopathic physicians, physical therapists, and some medical doctors. Practitioners perform spinal manipulation by using their hands or a device to apply a controlled force to a joint of the spine. The amount of force applied depends on the form of manipulation used. The goal of the treatment is to relieve pain and improve physical functioning.

See also: Chiropractic: An Introduction

CRS — The Measles: Background and Federal Role in Vaccine Policy (February 9, 2015)

February 20, 2015 Comments off

The Measles: Background and Federal Role in Vaccine Policy (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

The earliest accounts of measles date back over 1,000 years. This report presents basic information about this infectious disease, its history in the United States, available treatments to prevent individuals from contracting measles, and the federal role in combatting measles—from funding, to research, to the authority of the federal government in requiring mandatory childhood vaccinations. The report provides additional resources for information on measles and recommendations for vaccination against the disease.

Effectiveness of traveller screening for emerging pathogens is shaped by epidemiology and natural history of infection

February 20, 2015 Comments off

Effectiveness of traveller screening for emerging pathogens is shaped by epidemiology and natural history of infection
Source: eLife

During outbreaks of high-consequence pathogens, airport screening programs have been deployed to curtail geographic spread of infection. The effectiveness of screening depends on several factors, including pathogen natural history and epidemiology, human behavior, and characteristics of the source epidemic. We developed a mathematical model to understand how these factors combine to influence screening outcomes. We analyzed screening programs for six emerging pathogens in the early and late stages of an epidemic. We show that the effectiveness of different screening tools depends strongly on pathogen natural history and epidemiological features, as well as human factors in implementation and compliance. For pathogens with longer incubation periods, exposure risk detection dominates in growing epidemics, while fever becomes a better target in stable or declining epidemics. For pathogens with short incubation, fever screening drives detection in any epidemic stage. However, even in the most optimistic scenario arrival screening will miss the majority of cases.

The Food Safety Performance of Ground Beef Suppliers to the National School Lunch Program

February 18, 2015 Comments off

The Food Safety Performance of Ground Beef Suppliers to the National School Lunch Program
Source: USDA Economic Research Service

The food safety of meals served in the Nation’s schools is a great concern for many Americans, particularly those with children in school, and ground beef is a major school food item. This report examines the food safety performance of suppliers of ground beef to the National School Lunch Program (NSLP).

FACT SHEET: Progress in Our Ebola Response at Home and Abroad

February 13, 2015 Comments off

FACT SHEET: Progress in Our Ebola Response at Home and Abroad
Source: White House

Today, approximately 10 months since the first U.S. personnel deployed to West Africa to fight Ebola, we mark important milestones in our response to the epidemic and chart the way ahead. In keeping with the President’s charge that we tackle Ebola as a national security priority, we built, coordinated, and led an international response—involving thousands of personnel, both U.S. and international, civilian, and military—to fight the disease at its source. All the while, we enhanced our preparedness to encounter Ebola on our shores, establishing comprehensive measures to screen and detect the disease in travelers, while strengthening our capacity to diagnose, isolate, and treat any patients safely. This response showcased American leadership at its finest on the world stage, just as we came together as a nation to fortify our domestic resilience in the face of understandable apprehension. To be sure, our tasks are far from complete; we will keep working to meet this challenge until there are zero cases in West Africa and our domestic infrastructure is fully completed. Our focus now turns to consolidating that substantial progress as America today marks the next phase of our response.

Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Redefining an Illness

February 12, 2015 Comments off

Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Redefining an Illness
Source: Institute of Medicine

Between 836,000 and 2.5 million Americans suffer from myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome—commonly referred to as ME/ CFS. This disease is characterized by profound fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep abnormalities, autonomic manifestations, pain, and other symptoms that are made worse by exertion of any sort. ME/CFS can severely impair patients’ ability to conduct their normal lives.

The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the National Insti­tutes of Health, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Social Security Administration asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to convene an expert committee to examine the evidence base for ME/CFS. In Beyond Myal­gic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Redefining an Illness, the com­mittee proposes new diagnostic criteria that will facilitate timely diagnosis and care and enhance understanding among health care providers and the public.

A Clinical Index to Predict Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia Due to Alzheimer’s Disease

February 10, 2015 Comments off

A Clinical Index to Predict Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia Due to Alzheimer’s Disease
Source: PLoS ONE

Background
Mild cognitive impairment is often a precursor to dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease, but many patients with mild cognitive impairment never develop dementia. New diagnostic criteria may lead to more patients receiving a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment.

Objective
To develop a prediction index for the 3-year risk of progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia relying only on information that can be readily obtained in most clinical settings.

Design and Participants
382 participants diagnosed with amnestic mild cognitive impairment enrolled in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), a multi-site, longitudinal, observational study.

Main Predictors Measures
Demographics, comorbid conditions, caregiver report of participant symptoms and function, and participant performance on individual items from basic neuropsychological scales.

Main Outcome Measure
Progression to probable Alzheimer’s disease.

Categories: dementia, PLoS ONE, science
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