Archive for the ‘University of Southern California’ Category

When the Internet Sleeps: Correlating Diurnal Networks With External Factors (extended)

October 23, 2014 Comments off

When the Internet Sleeps: Correlating Diurnal Networks With External Factors (extended) (PDF)
Source: University of Southern California, Information Science Institute

As the Internet matures, policy questions loom larger in its operation. When should an ISP, city, or government invest in infrastructure? How do their policies affect use? In this work, we develop a new approach to evaluate how policies, economic conditions and technology correlates with Internet use around the world. First, we develop an adaptive and accurate approach to estimate block availability, the fraction of active IP addresses in each /24 block over short timescales (every 11 minutes). Our estimator provides a new lens to interpret data taken from existing long-term outage measurements, thus requiring no additional traffic. (If new collection was required, it would be lightweight, since on average, out- age detection requires less than 20 probes per hour per /24 block; less than 1% of background radiation.) Second, we show that spectral analysis of this measure can identify diurnal usage: blocks where addresses are regularly used during part of the day and idle in other times. Finally, we analyze data for the entire responsive Internet (3.7M /24 blocks) over 35 days. These global observations show when and where the Internet sleeps|networks are mostly always-on in the US and Western Europe, and diurnal in much of Asia, South America, and Eastern Europe. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) testing shows that diurnal networks correlate negatively with country GDP and electrical consumption, quantifying that national policies and economics relate to networks.

The New Adolescents: An Analysis of Health Conditions, Behaviors, Risks, and Access to Services Among Emerging Young Adults

August 20, 2013 Comments off

The New Adolescents: An Analysis of Health Conditions, Behaviors, Risks, and Access to Services Among Emerging Young Adults
Source: University of Southern California

The health status of emerging young adults from 18 to 26th birthday is a major concern facing our nation. These “new adolescents”:

  • face greater behavioral and non-behavioral health risks than either adolescents aged 12-17 or young adults aged 26-34. Overall, emerging young adults have the highest rates of motor vehicle injury and death, homicide, mental health problems, sexually transmitted infections and substance abuse
  • compared to those two age groups, emerging young adults often have the lowest perception of risk and
  • this age group has the least access to care and has the highest uninsured rate in the United States.

In other words: “Emerging young adults are adrift in the perfect storm of health risks”.Too often they are considered the “young invincibles” needing only catastrophic health coverage when in fact they need broad comprehensive health coverage.

Our goal in producing this chart book is to provide health care providers, health care networks and vendors, institutions, and policy makers with the data they need to make informed decisions about broad health care coverage and health prevention interventions in emerging young adults.

A national “emerging young adult” health agenda must be developed for this at risk age group. This should include thoughtful health care research, programs and national and state policies regarding delivery and access to health care.

Screening Sexy: Film Females and the Story that Isn’t Changing

May 16, 2013 Comments off

Screening Sexy: Film Females and the Story that Isn’t Changing

Source: Annenberg School of Communication and Journalism, University of Southern California

In the last five years, Hollywood has generated well-known and popular female-driven fare like Bridesmaids, The Hunger Games and the Twilight franchise. Given the success of these blockbusters, you might think that the number of roles for women is on the rise. Think again.

Across five years (2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2012), 500 top-grossing films at the U.S. box office, and over 21,000 speaking characters, a new study by USC Annenberg found that females represented less than one-third (28.4%) of all speaking characters in 2012 films. When they are on screen, 31% of women in 2012 were shown with at least some exposed skin, and 31.6% were depicted wearing sexually revealing clothing.

Even worse? “There has been no meaningful change in the prevalence of women on screen across the five years studied. In fact, 2012 features the lowest percentage of females in the five years covered in this report,” said Communication Professor Stacy L. Smith, the principal investigator. “The last few years have seen a wealth of great advocacy for more women on screen. Unfortunately, that investment has not yet paid off with an increase in female characters or a decrease in their hypersexualization.”

The authors also examined how the presentation of women varied by the age of the character. “The findings are as provocative as the outfits, especially when teenage female characters are considered,” Smith said.

Over half of female teen characters (56.6%) were shown in sexy attire in 2012, compared with 39.9% of women between the ages of 21 and 39. 2012 capped off a three-year increase in the hypersexualization of teen girls, while for other age groups the numbers do not show the same hike.

When a female works behind the camera in the key creative role of writer or director, there are more women shown on screen, and fewer female characters are hypersexualized.

A Preliminary Analysis of Network Outages During Hurricane Sandy

February 4, 2013 Comments off

A Preliminary Analysis of Network Outages During Hurricane Sandy (PDF)

Source: University of Southern California (Information Sciences Institute)

This document describes our analysis of Internet outages during the October 2012 Hurricane Sandy. We assess network reliability by pinging a sample of networks and observing those that respond and then stop responding. While there are always occasional network outages, we see that the outage rate in U.S. networks doubled when the hurricane made landfall, then took about four days to recover. We confirm that this increase was due to outages in New York and New Jersey.